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torsion of the intestinal tract around its mesenteric root, as viewed from above, with 180 to 720 degrees of torsion can occur. 5 Mesenteric torsion constitutes the most severe form of ileus and is the most difficult to treat. 6 The condition has been

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors associated with development of postoperative ileus in horses undergoing surgery for colic.

Design—Case-control study

Animals—69 horses that developed ileus after surgery for colic and 307 horses that did not develop postoperative ileus.

Procedure—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic data, treatment, lesions, and outcome were obtained from medical records.

Results—Variables associated with increased risk of postoperative ileus included age > 10 years, Arabian breed, PCV ≥ 45%, high serum concentrations of protein and albumin, anesthesia > 2.5 hours' duration, surgery > 2 hours' duration, resection and anastomosis, and lesions in the small intestine. Enterotomy reduced the risk of postoperative ileus. After multivariate logistic regression, the final model included the variables Arabian breed, PCV ≥ 45%, lesion type, duration of surgery (> 2 hours vs ≤ 2 hours), and pelvic flexure enterotomy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that by evaluating certain factors, horses at increased risk of postoperative ileus may be recognized before the condition develops. Preventative treatment and early intervention may be instituted in these horses. Shortening surgery time and performing an enterotomy may decrease the probability of horses developing postoperative ileus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:72–78)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine factors associated with development of postoperative ileus (POI) in horses undergoing surgery for colic.

Design—Prospective case-control study.

Animals—251 horses undergoing colic surgery, of which 47 developed POI.

Procedure—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic data, pre- and postoperative treatments, lesions, complications, costs, and outcome were recorded for all horses during hospitalization.

Results—Variables associated with increased odds of POI included small intestinal lesion, high PCV, and increased duration of anesthesia. There was modest evidence that pelvic flexure enterotomy and intraoperative administration of lidocaine may have reduced the odds of developing POI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings during the preoperative and intraoperative periods can be used to identify horses at increased risk of POI. Reducing surgical and anesthetic duration should decrease the incidence of POI. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 1070–1078)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Stimulation of α2 adrenergic receptors inhibits colonic motility and may constrict some peripheral vascular beds. Endotoxemia elicits release of sympathetic neurotransmitters and increases sympathetic nerve activity, which may result in stimulation of α2 adrenergic receptors. The objective of this study was to determine whether blockade of α2 adrenergic receptors would restore cecal motility and blood flow during endotoxemia in horses. Strain-gauge force transducers and ultrasonic flow probes were used to measure cecal and colonic mechanical activity and lateral cecal arterial blood flow. Intravenous infusion of endotoxin (cumulative dose of 0.03 mg/kg) significantly decreased cecal and right ventral colon contractile activity and lateral cecal arterial blood flow. Slow iv infusion of yohimbine (cumulative dose of 75 μg/kg) significantly attenuated those effects of endotoxin. On the basis of our findings, we concluded that endotoxemia causes cecal and proximal colonic ileus and cecal hypoperfusion via a mechanism that involves α2 adrenergic receptors.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of horses that underwent surgical treatment for colic between 1990 and 1992 were reviewed. Horses with a pulse rate of ≥ 60 beats/min or signs of abdominal pain, which were also accompanied by a volume of > 2 L of material that refluxed from the stomach during the postoperative period (excluding horses with anterior enteritis), comprised the postoperative ileus (poi) group. Horses that had < 2 L of material reflux during the postoperative period and survived > 3 days after surgery comprised the reference population. The association of preoperative and intraoperative clinical variables with development of poi was evaluated by use of logistic regression analysis.

Of 148 horses, 117 were assigned to the reference population, and 31 (21%) developed poi. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine that pcv, pulse rate, type and location of lesion detected during surgery, and serum glucose concentration were the most important variables associated with development of poi. Time of recovery from anesthesia to development of poi was 0.5 to 120 hours (median, 13 hours). Duration of poi was 1 to 7 days (median, 1 day). Four of 31 (13%) horses with poi died. Of 148 horses, only 10 (7%) died; however, 4 of the 10 (40%) deaths in the short-term postoperative period were attributable to poi.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

sampling in the current study. Alternatively, the POR in these cases might not be caused by a generalized functional ileus in the orad intestine, yet it could also result from a localized functional or mechanical ileus at the level of the anastomosis. The

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

) was administered; after 30 minutes (ileus phase), abdominal ultrasonography and EGG were performed. The person (HD) performing the ultrasonographic measurements was unaware of the experimental phase. EGG recordings —Each dog was placed in dorsal

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

abstract) has been reported in which the degree of gastrointestinal ileus associated with topical ophthalmic atropine administration was evaluated. Additionally, the percentage of topically applied atropine that is absorbed systemically when ocular barriers

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Colic is one of the leading causes of death in adult horses. 1 Gastrointestinal tract motility disturbances that result in ileus and impactions are common in horses with colic, and prokinetic agents are frequently administered to affected horses

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Gastrointestinal ileus or the lack of gastrointestinal tract motility is a potential complication of abdominal surgery and multiple gastrointestinal diseases. 1 A transient state of ileus develops in most horses after surgical abdominal

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research