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validated in dogs, cats, and horses to detect hyper-, hypo-, and normocoagulable states. Recent studies 2 – 4 have demonstrated hemostatic disorders including hypercoagulability in dogs with neoplasia. A hypercoagulable state has been reported in both

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the Virchow triad of broad risk factors for thrombosis—inflammatory or other endothelial injury, hemodynamic stasis, and hypercoagulability. 15,16 For example, the presence of marked splenic enlargement may cause regional stasis of blood flow and has

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

%. 1–7 Thromboembolism has been cited as the most common complication in dogs with primary IMHA, and its prevalence as determined at necropsy is reportedly as high as 80%. 3–8 Despite strong suspicion for the role of hypercoagulability in the clinical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether dogs with naturally occurring canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis have laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—9 dogs with naturally occurring CPV enteritis and 9 age-matched control dogs.

Procedure—Blood was collected from all dogs within 24 hours of admission for thromboelastography (TEG) and determination of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), antithrombin III (AT) activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) concentration, Ddimer concentration, and platelet count were obtained in dogs with CPV enteritis only. Records were reviewed for evidence of thrombosis or phlebitis.

Results—All 9 dogs with CPV enteritis had evidence of hypercoagulability, determined on the basis of significantly increased TEG maximum amplitude and decreased AT activity. Fibrinogen concentration was significantly higher in dogs with CPV enteritis than in control dogs. The aPTT was moderately prolonged in dogs with CPV enteritis, and FDP concentration was < 5 mg/ml in 7 of 9 dogs. No dogs had a measurable D-dimer concentration. Platelet counts were within reference range. Four of 9 dogs had clinical evidence of venous thrombosis or phlebitis associated with catheters. One dog had multifocal splenic thrombosis identified at necropsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with CPV enteritis have a high prevalence of clinical thrombosis or phlebitis and laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability without disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Thromboelastography may help identify hypercoagulable states in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1500–1504)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the accelerated generation of factor Xa and factor IIa. 6 The cell-based model of coagulation is superior to the cascade model for explaining hypercoagulability associated with increased platelet reactivity following major surgical trauma. 7 Both

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hypercoagulable state 3 that makes stroke and thromboembolism the major cause of morbidity and death in patients with this rhythm disturbance. 4,5 The pathogenesis of the procoagulant state is multifactorial. The 3 proposed components (changes in vessel wall

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

animals. In vitro TEG studies that used autologous plasma or crystalloid dilution of whole blood samples from dogs, p rabbits, 19 and humans 20,21 have revealed apparent hypercoagulability associated with anemia. In vivo manipulation of RBC mass has

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

an increased tendency for clot formation (ie, hypercoagulability) are known. Surgery and immobilization are considered some of the risk factors for the development of hypercoagulability and postoperative thromboses. 5 The same activation of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

injury result from platelet activation; therefore, changes in platelet numbers also impact the clotting cascade. 5 The diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of hypo- and hypercoagulable states in animals is difficult in regards to both progression of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

microvasculature, have notable procoagulant activity, and may potentially contribute to thrombus formation or disseminated intravascular coagulation. 15–18 Systemic inflammation contributes to a hypercoagulable state, likely because of effects attributable to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research