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. Hydromorphone is a semisynthetic, moderately lipophilic opioid that exerts its primary analgesic effects through μ-receptor activity. This drug has a similar adverse effect profile to morphine at equianalgesic doses and is widely used in veterinary medicine to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

potential of buprenorphine was not assessed. Anecdotal reports 5 mention possible adverse effects, such as profound sedative effects at the higher dose range. Hydromorphone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist reported to be 5 times more potent than morphine

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

acepromazine make it an effective and valuable medication for use prior to anesthesia in dogs. 1 Hydromorphone is an opioid approximately 8 times as potent as morphine that is used as an analgesic in dogs. 1 Hydromorphone has minimal adverse effects, is

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In North America, hydromorphone has become a popular choice for treatment of moderate to severe perioperative pain in cats and dogs. The drug is inexpensive and readily available, does not result in histamine release when administered IV, and is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

for some of the effects. 3 Physicochemical properties of opioids may cause differing onsets of action among drugs when administered epidurally. Hydromorphone is a μ-opioid agonist that is 8 times as potent as morphine and more lipid soluble than

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, venous blood pressure increase, subcutaneous bleeding, and prolonged hospitalization. 5 Indeed, hydromorphone administration during the postanesthetic period in dogs with intervertebral disk disease is a risk factor for pneumonia. 6 Hydromorphone is a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

,4 Opioids are frequently used in veterinary medicine and are considered to be the most effective class of analgesic drugs for the management of perioperative pain. Hydromorphone is a semisynthetic full μ-opioid receptor agonist that has been extensively

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Improvement in pain management will provide a faster return to normal function following trauma or surgery and overall improvement of animal welfare. Hydromorphone is a semisynthetic full μ-opioid agonist that has been used in human medicine for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, has antinociceptive effects in psittacine birds. 21,22 To our knowledge, hydromorphone, a μ-opioid agonist, has not been investigated in birds. Hydromorphone has fewer adverse effects than morphine. 23 In dogs

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

transmission of nerve impulses and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. 1 Research regarding distribution, quantity, and functionality of each opioid receptor type in birds has been limited. 2–4 Hydromorphone is a μ-opioid receptor agonist with a potency

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research