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is commonly referred to and described by the so-called law of sides, which states that, in a horse with apparent forelimb and contralateral hind limb lameness, lameness of the hind limb is frequently compensatory in nature, whereas in a horse with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

spinal cord disorders that result in gait abnormalities most prominent in the hind limbs; therefore, hind limb lameness and ataxia frequently must be distinguished by the practitioner. Diagnostic testing for musculoskeletal and neurologic gait deficits

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

vertical position in the local reference frame of the horse. For hind limb lameness, differences in minimum (during hind limb stance; PD min ) and maximum (before and after hind limb stance; PD max ) pelvic height between right and left halves of a stride

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

at The Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center Orthopedic Service for unilateral or bilateral hind limb lameness and considered for orthopedic surgery were included in the study. Dogs that met the study criteria were enrolled consecutively

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. This may artificially reduce the index because the forelimbs remain roughly symmetric during hind limb lameness. However, ipsilateral limbs are easy to record during gait analysis sessions, and a global asymmetry coefficient is thus easy to calculate

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

was lost because of the overlap. The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the applicability of Fourier analysis for assessment of GRFs and differentiation between dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by DJD-H and dogs without

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate pelvic movement over a large number of strides in sound horses and in horses with induced hind limb lameness by applying methods to the pelvis that have been described for evaluating vertical head movement in horses with induced forelimb lameness.

Animals—17 adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were filmed while trotting on a treadmill before and after induction of transient mild and moderate hind limb lamenesses. Vertical pelvic movement was measured by a signal decomposition method. The vertical pelvic signal was decomposed into a periodic component (A1) that occurred at half the stride frequency (representing vertical pelvic movement caused by lameness) and another periodic component (A2) that occurred at stride frequency (representing normal vertical pelvic movement of a trotting horse). Vertical pelvic and foot positions were correlated for each stride to compare the difference between the minimum and maximum heights of the pelvis during and after stance of the right hind limb to the minimum and maximum heights of the pelvis during and after stance of the left hind limb.

Results—Maximum pelvic height difference and lameness amplitude (A1) differed significantly between sound and mild or moderate hind limb lameness conditions. Mean A1 value for vertical pelvic movement in sound horses was less than that previously reported for vertical head movement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pelvic height differences and signal decomposition of pelvic movement can be used to objectively evaluate hind limb lameness in horses over a large number of strides in clinical and research settings. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65: 741–747)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

History A 13-month-old 29.3-kg spayed female German Shepherd Dog was referred for evaluation of a left hind limb lameness. Clinical signs of progressive worsening lameness began at 5 months of age and were more severe on the left side. There

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence, risk factors, and heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of Boxers.

Animals—1,733 Boxers from 325 litters.

Procedure—Status of Boxers with respect to clinical signs of canine hip dysplasia (cCHD) was registered during an 8-year period. Survival analysis accounted for dogs lost to follow-up. Effective heritability for developing cCHD was estimated by use of a proportional hazard model on the basis of the Weibull distribution. Parametric survival models were developed to identify the influence of potential risk factors.

Results—Cumulative hazard rate for cCHD from 7 weeks to 8 years of age was 8.5%. Dogs that were kept on a floor covered with a slippery material were 1.6 times as likely to develop cCHD, compared with dogs kept on a nonslippery floor. Risk of cCHD doubled in dogs from litters with a high preweaning mortality rate. Dogs that were neutered at 6 months prior to a diagnosis of CHD were 1.5 times as likely to develop cCHD, compared with sexually intact dogs. Dogs > 5 years of age were 1.8 times as likely to develop cCHD, compared with younger dogs. Estimated effective heritability of cCHD was 0.11. In terms of the risk of cCHD in progeny, mean estimated breeding value (EBV) of the 10 best and 10 worst sires was –0.32 and 0.42, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Registration of Boxers that develop cCHD may provide a strategy for disease prevention. In addition to diagnostic evaluation of radiographs, sire EBVs provide useful information for breeding selection decisions. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:307–312)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare a sensor-based accelerometer-gyroscopic (A-G) system with a video-based motion analysis system (VMAS) technique for detection and quantification of lameness in horses.

Animals—8 adult horses.

Procedure—2 horses were evaluated once, 2 had navicular disease and were evaluated before and after nerve blocks, and 4 had 2 levels of shoe-induced lameness, alternatively, in each of 4 limbs. Horses were instrumented with an accelerometer transducer on the head and pelvis, a gyroscopic transducer on the right forelimb and hind feet, and a receiver-transmitter. Signals from the A-G system were collected simultaneously with those from the VMAS for collection of head, pelvis, and right feet positions with horses trotting on a treadmill. Lameness was detected with an algorithm that quantified lameness as asymmetry of head and pelvic movements. Comparisons between the A-G and VMAS systems were made by use of correlation and agreement (κ value) analyses.

Results—Correlation between the A-G and VMAS systems for quantification of lameness was linear and high ( r 2 = 0.9544 and 0.8235 for forelimb and hind limb, respectively). Quantification of hind limb lameness with the A-G system was higher than measured via VMAS. Agreement between the 2 methods for detection of lameness was excellent (κ = 0.76) for the forelimb and good (κ = 0.56) for the hind limb.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The A-G system detected and quantified forelimb and hind limb lameness in horses trotting on the treadmill. Because the data are collected wirelessly, this system might be used to objectively evaluate lameness in the field. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:665–670)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research