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already widely used in laboratory species, including dogs, is the high-fat diet (HFD). This involves feeding animals a diet typically composed of 40% to 60% fat, mainly sourced from lard, and can be either for short (1 to 2 weeks) or long-term (months

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

consisted of commercial dry kibble plus homemade food (eg, beef, chicken, rice, and potato). The special diets were a high-fat diet, a a low-fat high-fiber diet, b and a low-residue (ie, highly digestible, moderate-fat) diet. c The 3 special diets were

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

HF High fat HFP High-fat diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids HFS High-fat diet enriched with saturated fatty acids LCAT Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase LDL Low-density lipoprotein MF Medium fat MFP Medium-fat diet enriched

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

energy requirements in exercising sled dogs. 12 Additionally, MT has been reported to represent a critical energy substrate in exercising dogs. 13 Therefore, it is possible that dogs that are fed a high-fat diet and undergo prolonged submaximal exercise

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether feeding a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet would decrease severity of exercise-induced muscle injury in horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

Animals

19 horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

Design

Case series.

Procedure

Specimens of the semitendinosus or semimembranosus muscle were obtained for histologic examination, and serum creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities 4 hours after exercise were determined. Horses were then fed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, and serum CK and AST activities 4 hours after exercise were reevaluated at approximately monthly intervals for 3 to 6 months.

Results

Serum CK and AST activities 4 hours after exercise were high before any change in diet. All 19 horses had evidence of chronic myopathic change and abnormal glycogen accumulation in muscle biopsy specimens; 11 horses also had evidence of complex polysaccharide accumulation. Adaptation to diet change required approximately 3 to 6 months. Sixteen horses did not have any episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis after 3 to 6 months of diet change, and 3 horses had mild episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following either a reduction in dietary fat intake or restriction in exercise. Postexercise serum CK and AST activities 3 to 6 months after the change in diet were significantly less than initial values.

Clinical Implications

Results indicated that exertional rhabdomyolysis may be a result of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in some horses. Feeding a diet with low carbohydrate and high fat content may reduce severity of exercise-induced injury in some horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1588–1593).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of age and sex on plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in cats.

Animals—33 kittens and 16 adolescent, 23 adult, and 10 senior cats.

Procedure—Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoprotein-cholesterol and activities of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) were measured and compared within and among groups.

Results—Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in 5- and 7-week-old kittens, compared with the same kittens after weaning and cats in the other age groups. Cholesterol concentration was significantly less in 20-week-old kittens, compared with adolescent and adult cats. Lipid and lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations were not significantly different among the adolescent, adult, and senior groups, nor did sex influence lipid and lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations in these groups. Activities of lipoprotein and hepatic lipases were significantly less in senior cats, compared with the other groups. Activity of LCAT was highest in 20-week-old kittens and was greater in sexually intact adult and adolescent females, compared with their male counterparts. After castration, activities of hepatic lipase and LCAT significantly decreased in adolescent male cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The upper limits of reference ranges for plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations should be increased for kittens < 8 weeks of age. Low cholesterol concentrations in adolescent cats likely reflect high tissue demands for growth and steroidogenesis. Decrease in lipoprotein and hepatic lipase activity in senior cats could predispose this age group to hypertriglyceridemia, particularly in insulin-resistant cats or those fed a high fat diet. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:331–336)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether feeding causes a change in feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI) in serum from healthy cats.

Animals

6 healthy domestic shorthair cats.

Procedures

For the first 12 days of the study, 3 cats were fed a high-protein, high-fat (diet 1), and the other 3 were fed a maintenance (diet 2). On day 12, diets were switched, and cats were fed the other diet for the remaining 12 days of the study. On days 11 and 23, food was withheld for 24 hours, and baseline serum fTLI was measured. Cats were offered food equivalent to half their daily caloric maintenance requirements, and serum fTLI was measured 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours later. Uneaten food was removed after 1 hour.

Results

Overall mean ± SD serum fTLI was 22.7 ± 5.8 µg/L when cats were fed diet 1 and 21.1 ± 5.0 µg/L when cats were fed diet 2. There was no significant difference in serum fTLI over time or between diets. However, there was a statistically significant, but clinically unimportant (mean increase, 1.7 µg/L), increase in serum fTLI, compared with baseline values, 1 hour after cats were fed diet 2 but not when cats were fed diet 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

A maintenance diet may cause a clinically unimportant increase in serum fTLI 1 hour after feeding in healthy cats. Results suggest that for healthy cats, it is not necessary to withhold food before collecting samples for determination of fTLI in serum. Whether feeding changes fTLI in serum from cats with disorders of the exocrine portion of the pancreas remains to be determined. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:895–897)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with EPI fed a high-fat diet, a high-fiber diet, and a highly digestible low-residue diet for 3 weeks each, the severity of some clinical signs was decreased when the composition of the diet was changed. However, responses to the different diets varied

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

fat, which exceeds the National Research Council safe upper limit for adult dogs 14 ). High-fat diets may be of concern because of the association between hypertriglyceridemia and phenobarbital treatment. In a study 15 conducted to evaluate the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

localization of mucosal tight junction proteins, specifically zonula occludens-1 and occludin. 13 Furthermore, diet and endocrine status may have additional effects on gastrointestinal permeability in obese animals. For example, obese mice fed a high-fat diet

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research