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). Incidence of an acute adverse event was estimated by determining the number of patient visits in which a dog met the case definition of an acute adverse event divided by the total number of doses of the heartworm preventive administered. Initial descriptive

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

challenging, heartworm preventives are safe and highly effective. A suggested method for estimating the local prevalence of heartworm infection in cats when feline-specific data are unavailable is to calculate 5% to 20% of the regional heartworm infection

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the knowledge and expectations of veterinarians and clients regarding heart-worm preventives and annual vaccinations for dogs.

Design—

Practitioner and client survey.

Sample Population—

435 veterinarians and 1,805 clients.

Procedure—

A survey was mailed to veterinarians requesting information from them and their dog-owning clients on expectations and knowledge regarding heartworm preventives and annual vaccinations. Responses of veterinarians were compared with those of clients, and both were compared with label indications.

Results—

Expectations of veterinarians and clients regarding heartworm preventives were similar and usually were consistent with regulatory interpretation of label terms. Of clients purchasing heartworm preventives, 38% did not know that the medication was effective against intestinal nematodes. Veterinarians and clients would be unsatisfied with a product that reduced, but did not eliminate, all intestinal nematodes. Most clients knew that annual vaccinations included distemper virus, parvovirus, and rabies virus, but about half of them did not know that other antigens were in the vaccines.

Clinical Implications—

Effects of heartworm preventives and diseases for which dogs are annually vaccinated should be explained fully to clients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:434–437)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Forty 11- to 12-week-old helminth-naive Beagles were categorized by sex and weight and randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (group 1, ivermectin/ pyrantel pamoate; group 2, milbemycin oxime; group 3, untreated control; group 4, diethylcarbamazine/ oxibendazole). Each pup was inoculated po with approximately 100 infective Ancylostoma caninum larvae and 100 larvated Toxocara canis eggs on day 0, and repeatedly at 7-day intervals thereafter until day 56. Administration of anthelmintics also began on day 0, and subsequent treatments were administered according to label recommendations at 30-day intervals (groups 1 and 2) or daily (group 4) for a period of 90 consecutive days.

Body weight and A caninum and T canis fecal egg counts were measured at weekly intervals, and clinical observations of health status were conducted twice daily. Pups were euthanatized on day 90, and total gastrointestinal worm burdens were determined.

Compared with the mean A caninum egg counts of group-3 control pups, egg counts in group-1 pups were significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) lower on every sampling date from day 28 to 90, egg counts of group-2 pups were significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) lower on sampling days 35, 42, 49, 63, 70, 77, and 84, and were consistently the highest of all treated groups, and egg counts of group-4 pups were significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) lower on every sampling date from day 14 to day 90, and were consistently the lowest of all treated groups. Compared with mean A caninum egg counts of group-3 pups, egg counts in group-1 and group-2 pups were lower by 97.8 and 90.8%, respectively. Numbers of adult hookworms recovered at necropsy were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower by 99.4, 83.9, and 99.9% in groups 1, 2, and 4, respectively.

Patent T canis infections were detected in 11 of 40 pups and only 5 adult worms were recovered from 4 pups at necropsy. These findings were attributed to age resistance to T canis by maturing pups rather than to a primary pharmacologic effect.

This study identified substantial differences in the quantities of hookworm eggs in experimentally infected pups receiving ivermectin/pyrantel, milbemycin oxime, or diethylcarbamazine/oxibendazole at label dosages, but the observed performance of all products was consistent with their respective label indications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

domestic cats, which can develop serious complications from heartworm-associated respiratory disease in response to as few as 1 to 3 adult D immitis worms. Despite the wide availability of heartworm preventives, heartworm infection remains a major

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

% efficacy by the Center for Veterinary Medicine; however, surveillance data indicate treatment failures occur in all heartworm preventive categories. 1 In a recent study, 2 2 groups of dogs were administered 1 dose of ivermectin or milbemycin oxime by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Heartworm seropositivity in cats There is one finding in the recent study “Seroprevalence of heartworm infection, risk factors for seropositivity, and frequency of prescribing heartworm preventives for cats in the United States and Canada” 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

negative). • Exposed cats being treated with heartworm preventive (antibody positive, but heartworm and disease free)—heartworm exposed. • Exposed, subclinical cats in which the parasite developed into immature L 5 in small numbers and the infection

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with abscesses or bite wounds, and 1.0% in cats with respiratory disease. Heartworm preventives were prescribed for only 12.6% of cats at testing. See page 873 Prevalence of Alaria infection in companion animals and wildlife in north

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Since the 1987 launch of ivermectin, the first monthly administered ML heartworm preventive for dogs, this family of compounds, which also includes MBO, moxidectin, and selamectin, now represents the only means of preventing the establishment of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association