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quality of healing, manage pain, and decrease the recurrence of injury. Blood-derived products concentrate blood components (platelets in PRP and both leukocytes and platelets in APS) that subsequently increase concentrations of growth factors and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and SCCs and other epithelial tumors of humans. 10,11 Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 has been most commonly studied in human patients with breast or colorectal cancer, and testing for HER2 immunoreactivity has been used extensively for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,10,14 and cells that are exposed to mechanical cues and growth factor gradients are more likely to proliferate, differentiate, migrate, and orient correctly within a nascent tissue. 14–17 Fibrin creates a provisional matrix in a graft bed, but its fibers

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

been determined. Although the presence of growth factors in platelet α-granules has been established, 7–9 release of these factors has been minimally investigated in horses and may vary substantially depending on the degree of platelet activation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to evaluate different treatment methods for limb wounds in horses, including topical administration of growth factors, cytokines, and other biological agents, yet healing times remain prolonged. Typically, wound healing is initiated by the traumatic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

anabolic growth factors and can therefore improve tissue healing. 10,17 Platelet lysates are cell-free, protein-rich preparations obtained from platelet concentrates that primarily are subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, osmolar stress, or detergents to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

mesenchymal precursor cells have been observed on the tips of synovial villi in patients with osteoarthritis. 35 Although both normal- and osteoarthritic-joint type B synoviocytes produce TGF-β1 36 (a chondrogenic growth factor), only osteoarthritic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

altering the expression of biochemical signals, such as growth factors and other cytokines. 1–3 Wound healing requires that many mediators work together to accomplish successful tissue repair. For example, during the process of fibroplasia, inflammatory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

endothelial growth factor is a hypoxia-induced proangiogenic factor that is a potent promoter of endothelial cell growth, proliferation, permeability, and survival in states of health and disease. 3,4 Tumor neovascularization is also known to be dependent on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Vascular endothelial growth factor is mainly synthesized in endothelial 1 and various tumor cells in humans 2 and dogs 3 but also in platelets 4 and leukocytes. 5 This growth factor is one of the most potent for blood vessel formation. Thus

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research