, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles in dogs. 2 , 3 The fibrotic transformation has historically been considered a consequence of muscle strain injury. 4 Fibrotic myopathy is a rare condition in dogs that affects the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles
Objective—To determine whether adenosine pretreatment
attenuates free radical production and muscle
damage in ischemic and reperfused canine skeletal
Animals—9 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and both gracilis
muscles were isolated, leaving only the major
vascular pedicle intact. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution
was injected into the artery supplying the control flap,
whereas adenosine (10 mg) was injected into the contralateral
artery. Ischemia was induced in both flaps
for 4 hours. α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone was administered
IV to each dog 1 hour prior to reperfusion.
Following 15 minutes of reperfusion, effluent blood
samples from each muscle flap were obtained and
processed for spin-trapping electron paramagnetic
resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Muscle biopsy specimens
were obtained for histologic evaluation, and
dogs were euthanatized.
Results—EPR spectra of strong intensity were
obtained from analysis of 5 of 9 paired samples.
Signals identified were characteristic of oxygen- and
carbon-centered free radical adducts. Signal intensity
of spectra from adenosine-treated flaps was significantly
less than that of control flaps; mean signal
attenuation was 36% in the adenosine-treated group.
Histologic evaluation of muscle flaps did not reveal
significant differences between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of
canine muscle flaps with adenosine prior to a period
of ischemia reduced but did not completely attenuate
free radical production after reperfusion. However,
adenosine pretreatment did not affect histologic
abnormalities. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:175–180)
Objective—To determine whether free radicals are
produced in ischemic and reperfused canine skeletal
muscle, whether free radicals can be detected from
effluent blood by use of spin-trapping electron paramagnetic
resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and
whether free radical-induced skeletal muscle damage
is detectable by use of light microscopy.
Animals—6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized and both gracilis
muscles were isolated, leaving only the major
vascular pedicle intact. Ischemia was induced in 1
flap for 4 hours; the contralateral flap served as the
control. Ischemic flaps were then reperfused for 15
minutes. α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, a spin-trapping
agent, was administered intravenously to each dog 1
hour prior to reperfusion. Following reperfusion, effluent
blood samples from muscle flaps were obtained
and processed for EPR spectroscopy. Muscle biopsy
specimens were obtained for histologic evaluation,
and dogs were euthanatized.
Results—Spin adducts were not detected in blood
from control flaps. However, spin adducts were
detected in all ischemic-reperfused muscle flaps.
Principal signals identified were characteristic of oxygen-
and carbon-centered radicals. Significantly more
muscle damage was detected in ischemic-reperfused
flaps, compared with control flaps.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Free radicals
may be an important component of injury
induced by ischemia and reperfusion of canine
skeletal muscle. Spin-trap adducts of free radicals
can be detected in effluent blood of canine muscle
flaps by use of spin-trapping EPR spectroscopy.
Spin-trapping EPR spectroscopy may be useful for
the study of antioxidants and free radical scavengers
in attenuating ischemia and reperfusionmediated
skeletal muscle damage. (Am J Vet Res
neuroaxonal degeneration has been described in some similarly affected nuclei (gracilis and cuneate) in aged horses without detectable neurologic deficits. 43 The purpose of the study reported here was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and
preservation of superficial digital flexor tendon. Ultrasonographic examination a of the calcaneal tendon revealed bilateral disruption of the gastrocnemius muscle and combined tendons of the biceps femoris, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles; however, the
proprioceptive ataxia or paresis, but rarely signs of pain. 2 Compression of the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord at this location would affect the sensory components of proprioception with the fasciculi cuneatus and gracilis comprising the lemniscal pathways
= Lateral aspect. Med = Medial aspect. a = Adductor muscle. b = Biceps femoris muscle. f = Femur. g = Gracilis muscle. q = Quadriceps femoris muscles. Bar in panel B = 1 cm.
Computed tomography of the right pelvic limb revealed no evidence of bone
gracilis muscle to prevent the passive extension of the fibroelastic penis that normally occurs through relaxation of the retractor penis muscles when the bull mounts a receptive cow.
The purpose of the study reported here was to retrospectively
described by Bray 1 was used. An initial ventral paramedian approach ( Figure 1 ), with a curvilinear incision from the inguinal fold to the ischium, was used. The sartorius, adductor, gracilis, and pectineus muscles and the medial aspect of the tensor