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represent a set of commonly identified comorbidities of aging closely linked to inactivity, reduced functional capacity, and sedentary behavior. 4 A disease diagnosis alone, however, is often a poor indicator of daily function since many diseases of aging

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In horses, brief periods of strenuous exercise induce physiologic changes that are characterized by a decrease in arterial blood pH and the development of lactic acidosis. 1 Intense exercise also affects immune function. Although such effects of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The left atrium contributes to the maintenance of optimal cardiac performance by modulating the filling of the left ventricle through 3 phasic functions. These consist of a reservoir function (expansion associated with the inflow of blood from the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

tension on the tongue or to displace the epiglottis with the instrument used for the laryngeal examination. When normal laryngeal function could not be confirmed and when patient status allowed, 1 to 3 boluses of doxapram hydrochloride (0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg [0

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Atrial mechanical function facilitates the transition between the almost continuous flow through the venous circulation and the intermittent filling of the ventricles and exerts a profound effect on overall cardiovascular performance. 1–3 Many

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Acute illness can cause dramatic changes in endocrine function. 1 Activation of the HPA axis, as evidenced by an increase in secretion of ACTH and cortisol, is believed to be a vital part of the physiologic stress response and is essential for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

inhibition of platelet function, which can be achieved by antagonism of specific platelet cell surface receptors, or interference with intracellular signaling pathways. Although the former provides high specificity, inhibition of platelet signal transduction

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

expander solution with an Mw of 130 kDa, an Ms of 0.42, and a C2:C6 ratio of 6:1 (HES 130/0.42) was used in this study and is thought to have less influence on platelet function and coagulation than the older high-Mw and high-Ms HES products. 1,10–12 The

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

result in improved lung function, but only after days and weeks of intervention, respectively. 3,4 Intravenously administered bronchodilators, such as atropine or N -butylscopolammonium bromide, 5 can rapidly induce bronchodilatation, but adverse

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cells and is responsible for such functions as gastric cytoprotection, regulation of renal blood flow, and regulation of platelet activity. 4 In contrast, COX-2 is considered an inducible form of the COX enzyme; it is found in extremely low amounts in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research