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intoxication, disorders associated with erythrocyte fragmentation (hemangiosarcoma, 8 hemolytic uremic syndrome, 9 and endocarditis 10 ), hypersplenism, 11 pyruvate kinase deficiency, 12 and dyserythropoiesis. 13 Perhaps most commonly, spherocytosis is

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

potentially results mechanically in a stress concentration at that head-body junction and is typically the most common location of needle fragmentation. Treatment and Outcome The owner was advised of the findings and offered options of (1) advanced

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Fragmentation of the medial coronoid process is a common developmental and hereditary disorder in dogs, but radiographic diagnosis of this condition can sometimes be difficult, particularly in dogs with partial fragmentation, minimal fragment

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

lithotripsy in human medicine because it is more effective and safer than EHL. 1,8 Laser lithotripsy is an innovative technique involving the intracorporeal fragmentation of uroliths, which is achieved with a rigid or flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Osteochondral fragmentation of the MCP and MTP joints is common in horses. Most of these fragments are located in the dorsal aspect of the joint, although fragments can also be seen in the palmar or plantar aspect of the MCP or MTP joint. 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The PTT is located in the proximal and medial region of the talus. 1,2 The anatomic features of this portion of the talus are complex, with a variety of ligaments and synovial attachments associated with the PTT. Fragmentation of the PTT in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

first reported in vitro fragmentation of uroliths with a ruby laser. 2 However, because fragmentation of uroliths was associated with generation of heat sufficient to damage adjacent tissues, it could not be used to treat patients. In 1986, researchers

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

subchondral microfracture in dysplastic specimens, adjunctive osteocyte loss and increased bone porosity have also been described. 10 Clinical diagnosis of FMCP can be challenging because evidence of overt fragmentation is rarely provided via conventional

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

forelimb proximal sesamoid bones was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of starting a race as a 2-year-old. Although both research groups found that osteochondral fragmentation (vs no fragmentation) of the proximal phalanx was associated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of arthroscopic surgery, osteochondral fragmentation, and treatment with IV administered hyaluronate on histologic, histochemical, and biochemical measurements within the carpal joints of horses.

Animals

12 clinically normal horses, 2 to 7 years of age.

Procedure

Horses had an osteochondral fragment created at the distal aspect of the radiocarpal bone of 1 randomly chosen middle carpal joint to simulate osteochondral fragmentation. Horses were treated with 40 mg of hyaluronate or saline solution (placebo) intravenously once a week for 3 consecutive weeks (days 13, 20, and 27 after surgery). Treadmill exercise proceeded 5 days per week beginning 15 days, and ending 72 days, after surgery. Clinical evaluations were performed at the beginning and end of the study. Synovial fluid samples were obtained aseptically from both middle carpal joints on days 0, 13, 20, 27, 34, and 72 after surgery, and total protein, inflammatory cell, hyaluronate, glycosaminoglycan, and prostaglandin E2 concentrations were measured in each sample. All horses were euthanatized on day 72. Synovial membrane and articular cartilage were obtained for histologic evaluation. Articular cartilage samples were also obtained aseptically for determining glycosaminoglycan content and chondrocyte synthetic rate for glycosaminoglycans.

Results

Horses treated with hyaluronate intravenously had lower lameness scores (were less lame), significantly better synovial membrane histologic scores, and significantly lower concentrations of total protein and prostaglandin E2 within synovial fluid 72 days after surgery, compared with placebo-treated horses. Treatment with intravenously administered hyaluronate had no significant effects on glycosaminoglycan content, synthetic rate or morphologic scoring in articular cartilage, or other synovial fluid measurements.

Conclusion

Intravenously administered hyaluronate appears to alleviate signs of lameness by interacting with synoviocytes, and by decreasing production and release of inflammatory mediators. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1132–1140)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research