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disorders may be further evaluated through the evaluation of serum pancreatic and absorptive indicators, such as trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI), pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI), cobalamin, and folate. Assays for TLI in domestic dogs reflect

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

method for meeting this therapeutic goal. 10–13 Folate is a B vitamin that is essential for many cellular processes, including DNA and RNA synthesis. Folate is hydrophilic; thus, transport of folate across biological membranes must be facilitated by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction Measurements of serum concentrations of cobalamin (vitamin B12), folate (vitamin B9), cPLI, and cTLI are widely used as minimally invasive tools to diagnose and monitor small intestinal and exocrine pancreatic disease in dogs. 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify changes in folate status of mares and foals during lactation and growth, respectively.

Animals—20 Thoroughbred mares and foals.

Procedures—Pregnant mares, and following foaling the same mares with their foals, were maintained on mixed grass-legume pasture and fed either a traditional dietary supplement rich in sugar and starch (SS) or a dietary supplement high in fat and fiber (FF). Blood samples were collected monthly from mares and foals up to 6 months after foaling. Total folate concentration in feed and forage was determined. Analyses of plasma folate, RBC folate, plasma homocysteine (HCY), and milk folate concentrations were performed.

Results—Mare plasma folate concentrations declined moderately during 6 months of lactation. Mare RBC folate concentrations initially increased after foaling up to 3 months but declined toward the end of the study. Plasma HCY concentration was higher for mares fed the SS supplement, compared with mares fed the FF supplement from foaling to 6 months of lactation. Milk folate concentrations decreased during the first 3 months and then increased. Foal plasma folate initially declined but then increased. Stable concentrations of RBC folate were observed in foals. Plasma HCY concentrations in foals were unaffected by growth during the last 5 months. References range values for plasma folate, RBC folate, milk folate, and plasma HCY concentrations in healthy lactational mares and young growing foals were determined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Folate status was not impaired in lactating mares and growing foals under the conditions in our study. It appears that folate supplementation is not necessary. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1214–1221)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

During earlier investigations of the hepatic effects in dogs of long-term administration of phenytoin alone or in combination with primidone, erythrocytic macrocytosis, neutropenia, neutrophilic hypersegmentation, and thrombocytopenia were observed. Such abnormalities were observed most often in dogs given phenytoin and resembled those known to be attributable to folate deficiency in human beings with epilepsy treated with phenytoin. To pursue the theory that these hematologic aberrations were caused by drug-induced folate deficiency, 12 dogs were given a diet specifically formulated to contain a minimally adequate concentration of folate. After 2 weeks, phenytoin was administered daily (400 mg, po, q 8 h) to 8 of the 12 dogs for 54 weeks. A cbc, bone marrow aspiration biopsy, and measurement of plasma and rbc folate concentrations were done every 3 weeks. Bone marrow aspirates were examined by transmission electron microscopy after 24 and 36 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period. Hepatic folate concentration was also determined in all dogs before and after treatment. Excretion of formiminoglutamic acid, as a marker of folate deficiency, was measured in all dogs at the end of the study.

All dogs remained healthy throughout the treatment phase. Consistent abnormalities were not observed in the blood or bone marrow of treated dogs. Plasma and RBC folate concentrations decreased in control and treated dogs as a result of dietary restriction (P < 0.02), and remained stable until the end of the study. The rbc folate content decreased further in treated dogs (P < 0.02), although the hepatic folate content was similar in control and treated dogs. Treated dogs did not excrete formiminoglutamic acid more rapidly than did control dogs. Gross necropsy or histologic abnormalities were not identified in control or treated dogs. We concluded that long-term administration of phenytoin was not associated with clinical, hematologic, or biochemical evidence of folate deficiency in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

conditions, including 1 of 2 dogs with gastric carcinoma. 31,40 Folate is a cofactor in numerous biochemical reactions and must be obtained from the diet or through microbial production in the gut. 41 In dogs, measurement of serum folate and cobalamin

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and bilirubin. 9 Beyond the loss of the ileum, removal of the ICJ in humans can accelerate fecal transport, leading to diarrhea, steatorrhea, and malabsorption of nutrients such as folate, cobalamin, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with sugar solution), and fecal bacteriologic culture (for Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp). Serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity and folate and cobalamin concentrations were measured in 23 dogs (11 dogs in group A and 12 in group C). In the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of oral administration of metronidazole on the number and species of duodenal bacteria and selective nutrients of cats.

Animals—6 healthy domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Undiluted duodenal fluid was obtained for quantitative and qualitative bacterial culture to determine species and number of bacteria in healthy cats. Blood samples were assayed for taurine, total protein, albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations. Cats then were given metronidazole (20 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for 1 month, after which bacterial cultures and serum assays of nutrients were repeated. Nine months after cessation of antibiotic treatment, duodenal bacteria were re-evaluated and serum was assayed for total protein, albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations.

Results—Oral administration of metronidazole caused a significant decrease in aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts in the duodenum of healthy cats, accompanied by emergence of Streptococcus spp and Corynebacterium spp. Serum concentrations of cobalamin and albumin increased when duodenal bacterial counts were decreased, although changes in folate or taurine concentrations were not detected. Measured variables did not differ, when comparing results obtained before and 9 months after cessation of metronidazole.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of metronidazole decreased the number of aerobic bacteria and altered indigenous flora in the small bowel of cats. Normal duodenal flora appeared to be stable, because species of bacteria were reestablished by 9 months after cessation of metronidazole. Bacterial flora appeared to have an impact on nutrients, because albumin and cobalamin increased during antibiotic administration and returned to preadministration concentrations after cessation of the antimicrobial. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1106–1112)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Sixteen German Shepherd Dogs were found, via quantitative microbial culture of intestinal fluid samples, to have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (ibo) over an 11-month period. All dogs were deficient in serum IgA. Consistent clinical signs suggestive of an alimentary tract disorder were not observed. Serum cobalamin determinations were not helpful in detecting ibo. Serum folate concentrations had variable sensitivity and specificity for detecting dogs from which we could culture ≥ 1 × 105 bacteria/ml from intestinal fluid samples in the nonfed state. Histologic and intestinal mucosal cytologic examinations were not useful in detecting ibo. Substantial within-dog and between-dog variation was found in the numbers and species of bacteria in the intestines. The difficulty in diagnosing ibo, the variability in organisms found in individual dogs on repeated sampling, the likelihood that intestinal fluid microbial cultures failed to diagnose ibo in some dogs, and the potential of ibo to be clinically inapparent were the most important findings in this study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association