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warranted. Florfenicol (FF) is an FDA-approved, synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding 50S and 70S subunits in ribosomes. 7 Florfenicol is a fluorinated derivative of thiamphenicol, in which the hydroxyl

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

treatment, prevention, or control of respiratory tract disease in sheep. 6–9 Florfenicol is a fluorinated derivative of thiamphenicol. It is a bacteriostatic antimicrobial with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

lacrimal fluid after parenteral administration 17 and that this route of administration can be clinically effective. 9,18 Florfenicol, a monofluorinated analogue to thiamphenicol, has greater in vitro activity against pathogenic bacteria than does

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hydrophobicity decrease, which in turn leads to impairment of the natural barrier function. 4,5 An otic gel containing florfenicol, terbinafine, and betamethasone acetate is commercially available for the treatment of dogs with acute otitis externa and acute

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentrations are short-lived after tourniquet removal; consequently, an 8-hour dosing interval is required for maximum effectiveness of that drug. 37 However, administration of RIVP every 8 hours is not practical in most clinical settings. Florfenicol is a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

prevalent bacterial cause of BRD, and the antimicrobials enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin have been approved by the US FDA for treatment of this disease. 2–4 The typical measurement of in vitro drug potency is the MIC, which is based

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of florfenicol injection on the meat characteristics of the cervical muscles in cattle.

Animals—100 steers (mean weight, 380 kg).

Procedure—In 50 calves, florfenicol (25 ml, twice) was injected into the cervical muscles of 1 side of the neck, and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (25 ml, twice) was injected into the cervical muscles of the other side of the neck. In the remaining 50 calves, florfenicol was injected into the cervical muscles of 1 side of the neck, and nothing was injected into the cervical muscles of the other side of the neck. Animals were slaughtered 132 days later, and samples of the cervical muscles were submitted for histologic evaluation and measurement of shear forces.

Results—2 injection sites used in the present study had extensive lesions, and both of these were sites where florfenicol had been injected. However, histologic scores for the florfenicol injection sites were not significantly different from scores for the contralateral saline solution injection sites and uninjected control sites. In addition, shear force values were not significantly different between sites in which florfenicol had been injected and the contralateral sites.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that few reactions should be expected with injection of florfenicol into the cervical muscles in steers and that reactions that do occur will consist mainly of fibrosis and infiltration of adipose tissue. However, shear force values, a measure of tenderness of the meat, should not be affected. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:64–68)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy of florfenicol for treatment of calves with naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

Design—Randomized controlled field trial.

Animals—63 beef calves and 80 dairy calves between 4 and 12 months of age.

Procedure—Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups. Calves in the SC treatment group received a single dose of florfenicol (40 mg/kg [18.2 mg/lb] of body weight), SC, on day 0. Calves in the IM treatment group received florfenicol (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb]), IM, on days 0 and 2. Calves in the control group received injections of saline solution (0.9% NaCl), IM, on days 0 and 2. Calves were reevaluated every other day for 20 days after treatment.

Results—Corneal ulcers healed by day 20 in 48 of 49 (98%) calves treated with florfenicol IM, 39 of 42 (93%) calves treated with florfenicol SC, and 33 of 52 (63%) control calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Florfenicol administered SC (1 dose) or IM (2 doses 48 hours apart) was effective for treatment of calves with naturally occurring IBK. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 62–64)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of florfenicol in an induced model of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, using a blinded randomized, controlled trial.

Animals

48 male Holstein calves, 2 to 4 months old.

Procedure

Moraxella bovis infection was induced in all calves. When corneal ulcers developed, each calf was assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatment groups, using a block design determined by corneal ulcer size (day 0). Calves were treated with florfenicol (20 mg/kg of body weight, IM) on days 0 and 2 (IM group; n = 16). Calves of a second group received a single dose of florfenicol (40 mg/kg, SC) on day 0 (SC group; n = 16). The third group of calves was not treated (control group; n = 16). Corneal ulcers were photographed, and each calf was assessed for 30 days after treatment for 10 clinical signs of infection. Corneal ulcer surface areas were measured, and clinical scores were calculated. Ocular secretions for microbiologic culture were obtained weekly from each eye.

Results

A Cox regression model indicated that, after adjustment for initial ulcer size, healing rates were 6.2 and 4.8 times greater in calves of the IM and SC groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Clinical scores and surface area measurements for treatment groups were significantly smaller than those for controls during posttreatment weeks 1 through 4. From day 8 through day 29, M bovis was isolated from ocular secretions of 14 of 16 control calves and 1 of 32 treated calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Parenterally administered florfenicol reduces corneal ulcer healing time, lessens clinical severity, and reduces the amount of bacterial shedding from calves infected with M bovis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:960-964)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of florfenicol treatment for bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, nonagalactiae streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, and others.

Design

Double blind study with cases randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups.

Sample Population

861 cows/10 commercial dairy farms.

Procedures

Experimental (750 mg of florfenicol) or control (200 mg of cloxacillin) treatment was administered by intramammary infusion every 12 hours for 3 treatments to all cases. Treatments were randomly assigned, identified only by numerical labels. To retain blinding, the longer withdrawal time was adhered to for all cases. Cases remained in the study only if there was no other treatment. Quarter samples were recultured 14, 21, and 28 days later. If all samples after day 1 were culture negative, the case was defined as cured. If only 1 of the follow-up results was positive, the case was considered cured if the day-28 somatic cell count was < 300,000/ml. Failure of treatment was defined as 2 or more culture-positive follow-up samples.

Results

Florfenicol and cloxacillin did not differ significantly in efficacy versus clinical (n = 85) or subclinical (n = 71) bovine mastitis, or for any etiologic agent (χ2). Overall cure rates for mastitis were: Str agalactiae, 5 of 8 (63%); Sta aureus, 5 of 54 (9%); Streptococcus sp, 16 of 35 (46%); Staphylococcus sp, 7 of 33 (21 %); E coli, 5 of 11 (46%); Klebsiella sp, 3 of 6 (50%); others, 1 of 9 (11%); and all cases, 42 of 156 (27%).

Conclusions

Florfenicol did not offer any advantage over cloxacillin in efficacy against bovine mastitis. Overall cure rates were low. As with most mastitis treatment regimens, poor efficacy may be partly attributable to the short duration of treatment. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:526–528)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research