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, money, and cadaveric tissue). The finite element method has been used to develop computational models of the human carpus. 5,6 A finite element model of the canine radius has been developed to determine loading conditions that result in replication of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Figure 2 Creation of a finite element model. (A) L1–2 segment model after mesh generation, consisting of a 0.3–3.0-mm tetrahedral mesh. The area circled by the white frame is the enlarged figure. (B) L1–2 segment model after soft tissue insertion. The L

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. All analyses were performed with commercial statistical software, h and values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. FE modeling Finite element modeling i was used to evaluate the mechanical behavior (eg, load transfer and bone strain

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the bending modulus and yield strength of the outer stratum medium (SM) differed from those of the SM zona alba (SMZA) and to what degree they differed. In addition, a comparison was made among our values and values reported elsewhere.

Sample Population—10 normal equine feet.

Procedure—A 3-point bending technique was used to determine the bending modulus and yield strength of the outer SM and SMZA. Efforts were made to minimize biological and technical factors that could influence the bending modulus.

Results—Bending modulus of the outer SM was (mean ± SD) 187.6 ± 41.3 MPa, whereas mean value for the SMZA was 98.2 ± 36.8 MPa. Mean yield strength was 19.4 ± 2.6 MPa for the outer SM and 5.6 ± 1.7 MPa for the SMZA. Values for bending modulus and yield strength differed significantly between the outer SM and SMZA. Significant differences were not detected when the outer SM was loaded in bending from the outer or inner surface.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Potentially, the SMZA could serve as a mechanical buffer zone between the rigid hoof wall and bone and laminar tissues. This buffer zone potentially assists the feet of horses in transmitting a load through the tissues and prevents the most susceptible tissues from becoming damaged. More consistency among tissue selection, preparation, and testing protocols must be attained before an accurate 3-dimensional finite-element model of an equine foot can be constructed. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:745–751)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine articular cartilage of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL) as well as the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) for adaptive responses to contact stress.

Sample Population—Specimens from 21 horses.

Procedure—Pressure-sensitive film was inserted between articular surfaces of the DIP joint. The digit was subjected to a load. Finite element models (FEM) were developed from the data. The navicular bone, distal phalanx, and distal attachments of the DSIL and DDFT were examined histologically.

Results—Analysis of pressure-sensitive film revealed significant increases in contact area and contact load at dorsiflexion in the joints between the distal phalanx and navicular bone and between the middle phalanx and navicular bone. The FEM results revealed compressive and shear stresses. Histologic evaluation revealed loss of proteoglycans in articular cartilage from older horses (7 to 27 years old). Tidemark advancement (up to 14 tidemarks) was observed in articular cartilage between the distal phalanx and navicular bone in older clinically normal horses. In 2 horses with navicular syndrome, more tidemarks were evident. Clinically normal horses had a progressive increase in proteoglycans in the DSIL and DDFT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Load on the navicular bone and associated joints was highest during dorsiflexion. This increased load may be responsible for microscopic changes of tidemark advancement and proteoglycan depletion in the articular cartilage and of proteoglycan production in the DSIL and DDFT. Such microscopic changes may represent adaptive responses to stresses that may progress and contribute to lameness. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:414–424)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,18 joint congruency 15 and position of the acetabular cup, 10 is obtained from 3-D CT models in humans with hip dysplasia. The information is incorporated into finite element models to predict and model disease progression. 21,37,38 The measures

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the cranial cavities used simplified mathematical models to derive solutions that expressed the nonlinear relationships between pressure, volume, volume-pressure responses, and compliance. 11–15 Finite element modeling is rapidly gaining popularity

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

merely indicates that there is contact in a given area above a certain threshold of loading. However, it would be beneficial to know the stress distribution under different loads and how this relates to the density pattern. Finite element modeling coupled

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

subject-specific finite-element model of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint under physiological load . J Biomech . 2014 ; 47 : 65 – 73 . 24210848 6. Muybridge E . Animals in Motion . Dover Publications ; 1957 . 7. van Weeren R . Equine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

subject-specific finite-element model of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint under physiological load . J Biomech 2014 ; 47 : 65 73 . 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.10.001 47. Shorten MR . Running shoe design: protection and performance . In: Tunstall

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research