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cost to the client, recommendations for perioperative feeding practices that reduce its incidence are needed. It has long been considered the standard of care to withhold hay prior to anesthetic induction, with previous studies citing fasting times of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

—replicates pathologic changes appreciated in human tendinopathic studies. 7 When a mechanical loading component was applied to this murine model via daily short-fast (32 cm/s for 25 minutes) treadmill running, improved biomechanical properties and histopathology

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

suspected, including a faster total transit time and decreased small intestinal pH in cats compared to dogs. 1 – 4 However, drawing meaningful conclusions from these studies is hampered by the presence of several potentially confounding variables, including

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The concept of fast-track surgery was pioneered by Kehlet 1 in the 1990s. Also known as enhanced recovery after surgery, the term fast-track surgery describes a multimodal approach to achieve a common goal of optimizing recovery from general

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Overall, 74% of the tissue specimens that meat inspectors at a large Pennsylvania packing plant identified as lesions of swine mycobacteriosis yielded Mycobacterium avium on bacteriologie culture. Histopathologic lesions compatible with mycobacteriosis were identified in 83% of the specimens; only 12% of the specimens had acid-fast staining organisms.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining technique (mZN), a direct immunofluorescence detection procedure (DIF), and 3 commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal specimens from kittens.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—416 fecal specimens collected from 104 randomly selected domestic shorthair kittens (8 to 16 weeks of age) that were naturally exposed to Cryptosporidium spp.

Procedure—Fresh fecal specimens were collected once daily for 4 consecutive days and processed immediately. Sensitivities of mZN, DIF, and 3 commercial EIAs (EIA-1, EIA-2, and EIA-3) were estimated and compared.

Results—EIA-2 had the highest sensitivity on day 1 (89%), followed by EIA-1 (80%), and mZN (72%). EIA- 3 had the lowest sensitivity on day 1 (15%). EIA-2, EIA- 1, and mZN had similar sensitivities after 2 consecutive fecal examinations (approx 90%). Determination of specificities was compromised by the small number of cats that had negative results for all tests (n = 3).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that EIA-2 and EIA-1 had the highest sensitivities when only a single fecal specimen was examined; however, mZN and EIA-1 had similar sensitivities when 2 consecutive fecal specimens were examined. The higher costs of EIA-2 and EIA-1 may be offset by the tests’ high sensitivity, simplicity of use, and ease of interpretation and by savings in technician time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1549–1553)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the fast spin echo technique. 1 This sequence requires a preliminary 180° inversion pulse. By choosing an appropriate time of inversion so that protons in fat have no longitudinal magnetization at the time of the 90° excitation pulse, no signal is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the percentages of cattle that are stunned correctly and that vocalize (moo or bellow) when a major meat-buying customer conducts slaughter plant audits.

Design—Survey of existing practices.

Sample Population—22 federally inspected slaughter plants.

Procedure—The 3 variables evaluated in each slaughter plant were stunning efficacy, insensibility on the bleed rail, and vocalization.

Results—Of the 22 slaughter plants, 17 (77%) rendered ≥ 95% of the cattle insensible with a single shot from a captive bolt stunner. Twenty slaughter plants (91%) rendered 100% of the cattle completely insensible before hanging them on the bleed rail. Eighteen of 21 (86%) slaughter plants achieved cattle vocalization scores of ≤ 3%. The mean vocalization score for all slaughter plants was 3.08%. Vocalization ranged from 0.66 to 17%.

Conclusions—Results of this study indicate that audits of slaughter plants by major meat-buying customers may motivate the meat industry to improve handling and stunning practices. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:848–851)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate if a difference in synovial amikacin concentrations exists in the radiocarpal joint (RCJ) following different durations of instillation of an IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) perfusate.

ANIMALS

7 healthy horses.

METHODS

Horses received 2 IVRLPs with 2 g amikacin diluted to 60 mL with 0.9% NaCl via the cephalic vein in a crossover study design with a wash-out period between procedures. Instillation of the perfusate was administered over a 1-minute (technique 1) and 5-minute (technique 5) period. Concentrations of amikacin within the RCJ were measured at time (T) 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after instillation of the perfusate. Systemic concentrations of amikacin were measured at T0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 29 minutes, and 1 minute after tourniquet removal (T31). Amikacin concentrations were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

RESULTS

The median maximum concentration (CMAX) of amikacin within the RCJ for technique 1 was 338.4 µg/mL (range, 60 to 4,925 µg/mL), while the median CMAX for technique 5 was higher at 694.8 µg/mL (range, 169.2 to 3,410 µg/mL; P = .398). There was a higher amikacin blood concentration over time for technique 1 compared to technique 5 (P = .004).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of perfusate at different rates did not significantly affect synovial concentration of amikacin within the RCJ when performing IVRLP. However, increased systemic leakage was noted when the perfusate was administered over 1 minute, which might affect synovial concentrations in a larger group of horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research