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extraoral approach or a combination of extraoral and intraoral teeth extractions. To facilitate the approach to the affected teeth and bone, a lone-star retractor was used in all cases. For treatment of the mandibular teeth, a skin incision parallel to the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

persists. 24 Currently, removal of plaque-retentive surfaces by extraction of teeth is considered to be the most effective method of reducing or eliminating oral inflammation. 1,26 Authors of 2 previous studies 11,27 have concluded that approximately 60

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In some situations, extraction of maxillary or mandibular second, third, and fourth premolar or first, second, and third molar teeth (ie, cheek teeth) is indicated to manage dental conditions in equids such as periapical infection, dental fracture

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with the zonules for 7 minutes significantly reduced (by 58%) the force required for lens extraction. 31 On the basis of these ex vivo data, we hypothesized that α-chymotrypsin could be used in the same manner to facilitate ICLE in clinically normal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

± SD amount of feces was 1.0 ± 0.2 g in each tube. Fresh fecal samples were collected from each dog at the time of the first defecation of the day. IgA extraction from feces —Fecal samples were diluted 1:5 in a low-pH glycine-extraction buffer (1M

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Grafting of alveoli following tooth extraction is a common procedure in human dentistry to prevent postextraction bone loss and preserve the height and width of the alveolar rim. This procedure provides an ideal graft bed for implant placement and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Phacoemulsification and aspiration for cataract extraction in dogs is an elective procedure commonly performed by veterinary ophthalmologists. Benefits include restoration of vision and reduction of cataract-related complications, such as glaucoma

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine changes in splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio during experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs.

Animals—6 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—Standard midline laparotomy and median sternotomy were performed in anesthetized dogs. Baseline measurements of arterial blood pressure, aortic blood flow, portal vein blood flow, and portal vein pressure were acquired, and arterial, venous, and portal vein blood samples were obtained to determine systemic and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratios. The portal vein was gradually occluded until a pressure of 18 cm of H2O was reached; this pressure was maintained for 30 minutes, and measurements and collection of blood samples were repeated.

Results—Portal vein blood flow decreased significantly from 457 ± 136 ml/min before to 266 ± 83 ml/min after induction of portal hypertension. Oxygen content in the portal vein significantly decreased from 12.3 ± 1.85 to 8.2 ± 2.31%, and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio significantly increased from 15.8 ± 6.2 to 37.4 ± 10.9% during portal hypertension. There was a significant inverse correlation between portal vein blood flow and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio at baseline and during portal hypertension.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—An increase in splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio is evident with partial attenuation of the portal vein and the concurrent decrease in portal vein blood flow. Correlation of oxygen extraction ratio with portal vein blood flow may be a more important indicator for determination of an endpoint to prevent congestion and ischemia of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas during ligation of portosystemic shunts. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:15–18)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the mechanisms by which intraocular pressure (IOP) increases acutely after phacoemulsification (PE) lens extraction in clinically normal dogs.

Animals

24 young adult dogs.

Procedure

Intraocular pressure was monitored for up to 24 hours after unilateral intercapsular PE in 17 clinically normal, adult dogs. In 8 of these dogs, use of 2% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) aided capsulorhexis. Mean volume of irrigation, PE time, and power were constant between groups. After surgery, dogs were randomized then euthanatized, and eyes were examined grossly and histologically at 0 (n = 4), 3 (n = 7), and 24 hours (n = 6) after PE. Seven additional dogs underwent anterior chamber decompression alone (n = 4) or served as morphologic controls (n = 3).

Results

Intraocular pressure peaked by postoperative hour 3 at 49.9 ± 5.0 mm of Hg and normalized by 24 hours. Use of HPMC did not affect the peak or duration of IOP increase. Blood refluxed into the collecting channels and corneoscleral trabecular mesh-work in operated eyes. Computer-aided morphologic analysis indicated significant (P < 0.001) reduction in ciliary cleft cross-sectional surface area and width immediately after PE, but not after anterior chamber decompression alone. Cleft collapse was significantly (P < 0.02) greater at 24 than at 3 hours, despite return of IOP to control values by 24 hours. Plasmoid aqueous also was found in the meshwork.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Sudden, large increases in IOP with few overt clinical signs may occur immediately after lens extraction in dogs. Such increases risk compromising the corneal incision and may damage the optic nerve, thereby complicating lens extraction. Structural alterations in the trabecular meshwork persist after IOP has normalized in 24 hours and may contribute to genesis of glaucoma in the late postoperative period. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1159–1165)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms in dogs with diabetes mellitus following cataract extraction by means of phacoemulsification and identify potential risk factors.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 174 dogs without.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs undergoing phacoemulsification between 1993 and 2003 were reviewed, and information was recorded on signalment, history, physical examination findings, ophthalmic examination findings, results of laboratory testing, electroretinographic findings, and surgical findings. Glycemic control was classified as poor, intermediate, or good on the basis of baseline blood glucose concentration, perioperative body weight loss, daily insulin dosage, and presence of glucosuria and ketonuria. Data from diabetic and nondiabetic dogs were analyzed to determine prevalence and risk factors for development of retinal hemorrhages or microaneurysms following phacoemulsification.

Results—11 of the 52 (21%) dogs with diabetes mellitus developed ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal hemorrhages or microaneurysms, compared with 1 of the 174 (0.6%) nondiabetic dogs. Median time from onset of diabetes mellitus to diagnosis of retinopathy was 1.4 years (range, 0.5 to 3.2 years). No risk factors for development of retinopathy were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms may be more common and develop earlier in diabetic dogs than previously reported. This may affect treatment, as diabetic dogs survive longer with improved glycemic control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 709–716)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association