Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 248 items for :

  • "exotic pets" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial describing intraperitoneal (IP) and intracoelomic (IC) therapeutics (IP/IC fluid therapy, euthanasia, direct peritoneal resuscitation).

ANIMALS

Dogs, cats, and exotic pets.

METHODS

Peritoneal and coelomic centesis allows for delivery of fluids or to perform euthanasia. The peritoneal and coelomic membranes contain a vast network of capillaries and lymphatics that allow absorption of fluids and blood products. Needles are inserted aseptically IP or IC at species-specific locations to avoid iatrogenic damage. In mammals, the needle is inserted in a periumbilical location at a 1- to 2-cm radius from the umbilicus, while the needle is inserted into the ventral inguinal fossa in chelonians and lateroventrally in lizards and snakes. Direct peritoneal resuscitation is a human technique in which a dextrose/electrolyte solution infused IP reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury, edema, and tissue necrosis to improve mortality in patients with diseases like shock and sepsis or who require acute abdominal surgery.

RESULTS

Isotonic crystalloids are given IP/IC at 10- to 20-mL/kg doses (smaller volumes in reptiles) and blood products at standard calculated doses. Sodium pentobarbital without phenytoin (3 mL/4.5 kg) is used for IP/IC euthanasia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Being aware of multiple routes for fluid and blood product administration allows treatment in animals for which intravenous or intraosseous catheterization is undesirable or impossible. While intravenous or intraosseous routes are always preferred, especially for resuscitation, familiarity with locations for IP/IC fluid and euthanasia is useful. Techniques like direct peritoneal resuscitation are not currently used in animals but might be translated to veterinary cases in the future.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, under standardized conditions (temperature, 26° to 28°C; relative humidity, 65%). The snakes were fed mice at monthly intervals. The study was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Canton Zurich

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Authors and

BG . Current research in avian chemotherapy . Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim 2004 ; 7 : 821 – 831 . 15 Filippich LJ . Tumor control in birds . Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 2004 ; 13 : 25 – 43 . 16

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. In: Fudge AM . Laboratory medicine: avian and exotic pets . Philadelphia : WB Saunders Co , 2000 ; 9 – 18 . 43. Harrison G Harrison L . Clinical avian medicine and surgery . 2nd ed . Philadelphia : WB Saunders Co , 1994 ; 1066

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Animals, Exotic Pets, and Wildlife immediately preceding the MRI. Samples of feed offered, leftovers, and feces were stored frozen at −20°C until submitted for iron analysis. For QIA, formalin-fixed histologic samples were embedded in paraffin and

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

rabbits ( O cuniculus subsp domesticus ) examined at the Exotic Pet Clinic of Santa Cruz in California was performed between January 1, 2022, and December 31, 2023. Rabbits that presented with clinical signs of myxomatosis, including bilateral

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate behaviors associated with inflammatory pain induced by carrageenan injection in the cockatiel and determine interobserver agreement.

ANIMALS

16 adult cockatiels.

METHODS

Cockatiels were randomly assigned as either treatment (carrageenan injection) or control (sham injection) group. The treatment group received a subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL of a 1% lambda carrageenan solution into the left footpad. Following treatment or control procedures, all cockatiels were video recorded individually for 9.5 hours. Ten minutes of video at each of 11 time points postinjection and/or handling were evaluated by 3 different observers. Twenty-five behaviors within 6 categories (resting, locomotion, maintenance, intake, interaction with environment, and limb and body posture) were assessed, in addition to crest position and mentation. Differences in individual behaviors tallies were assessed using serial Wilcoxon sum rank tests. Interobserver agreement was assessed using an intraclass correlation coefficient for a 2-way design for consistency among multiple observers.

RESULTS

Treatment cockatiels exhibited significantly increased focal preening (q = .023) and increased burst preening (q = .036), while control cockatiels spent significantly more time in an upright stance (q = .036). Although the remainder of behaviors observed were not statistically significant between groups, additional variables of interest seen more frequently in treatment cockatiels included non–weight-bearing stance, holding of the body low, and being nonvigilant. The level of agreement between observers was variable based on the specific behaviors; nevertheless, the dynamic behaviors were substantial to strong.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carrageenan-induced inflammation-associated behaviors may be valuable in developing a pain scale and evaluating mild inflammatory pain in small psittacine species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish a demographic approach to facilitate the comparison of husbandry success for deer species in zoos and to test for factors that influence the performance of deer species in captivity.

Sample Population—Data collected from 45,736 zoo-kept deer that comprised 31 species.

Procedures—Data had been collected by the International Species Information System during the last 3 decades on zoo-kept deer around the world. The relative life expectancy (rLE) of a species (ie, mean life expectancy as a proportion of the maximum recorded life span for that species) was used to describe zoo populations. The rLE (values between 0 and 1) was used to reflect the husbandry success of a species.

Results—A significant positive correlation was found between the rLE of a species and the percentage of grass in the natural diet of the species, suggesting that there are more problems in the husbandry of browsing than of grazing species. The 4 species for which a studbook (ie, record of the lineage of wild animals bred in captivity) was maintained had a high rLE, potentially indicating the positive effect of intensive breeding management.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The rLE facilitated the comparison of husbandry success for various species and may offer the possibility of correlating this quotient with other biological variables. Ultimately, identifying reasons for a low husbandry success in certain species may form the basis for further improvements of animal welfare in captivity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 4-year-old sexually intact male leucistic axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) was presented with a 2-week history of dysrexia and difficulty swallowing.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination revealed a 1-cm-diameter intraoral mass on the rostral aspect of the palate and swelling of the left nasal fossa. Local invasion into the left nasal fossa was suspected during oral examination. The lesion was marginally excised, and an incompletely excised olfactory neuroblastoma was diagnosed histologically. Five weeks later, physical examination revealed persistent erythema, delayed healing of the rostral portion of the palate, and a mild facial deformity associated with a white mass in the nasal cavity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

6 weeks after excision, adjuvant electron (6-MeV) beam radiotherapy was initiated for treatment of the incompletely excised olfactory neuroblastoma and likely presence of a recurrent mass. The protocol consisted of 4 weekly fractions of 8 Gy each (total, 32 Gy) with the axolotl under anesthesia. No acute adverse radiation effects were noted following radiotherapy. The oral erythema resolved after the third session. No recurrence was observed 2 months after treatment, and the owners reported no abnormal signs at home. The axolotl died 3.5 months after radiotherapy was completed (8 months after marginal excision of the tumor) secondary to an environmental management failure. Postmortem histologic evaluation showed no evidence of neoplasia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In axolotls, olfactory neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraoral palatal masses. This report describes the first application of radiotherapy for treatment of an olfactory neuroblastoma in an axolotl.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association