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species of sea turtles, but not extensively described in freshwater turtles. These include an intraoral retrograde approach, removal via endoscopy and esophagostomy, and various approaches for celiotomy to retrieve fishhooks from different aspects of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

was provided. General anesthesia was induced for placement of a 10F esophagostomy tube and a urinary catheter. The urinary catheter was placed to enhance fluid balance monitoring by enabling accurate comparisons of the total fluids received by all

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.11 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb]) was administered via the esophagostomy tube every 24 hours until time of discharge from the hospital. Apparent nausea was controlled via IV administration of maropitant citrate (1.1 mg/kg [0.5 mg/lb]) once every 24 hours until time

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Pharyngeal or esophageal trauma was diagnosed in 9 horses after nasogastric intubation. Evidence of trauma (edema or ulceration) was detected in the pharynx of 3 horses and in the esophagus of 6 horses. Complications associated with nasogastric intubation were first observed in 5 horses while they were intubated and in 4 horses after extubation. Clinical signs of pharyngeal or esophageal trauma were similar, and included salivation, bruxism, coughing, and nasal discharge. Treatment, including extubation, enteral feeding through a small nasogastric tube, or esophagostomy distal to the affected site, was attempted in 6 horses. Three of 6 treated horses survived, but 4 of 5 horses with perforated esophagus were euthanatized.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, and the skin was prepared as for an esophagostomy tube placement. 16 , 17 A timer was started when the forceps was placed through the mouth into the esophagus ( Figure 2 ). The forceps was then pushed laterally to make a small skin tent dorsal to the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Hepatic lipidosis is a common disease associated with inappetence in cats. Successful treatment requires nutritional supplementation, which is typically administered through a feeding tube (eg, gastrotomy tube or esophagostomy tube). Placement of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

quadrate and temporal bone fractures and the risk of further destabilization of fracture fragments during surgery, a conservative approach was chosen. While the bird was under general anesthesia, an esophagostomy tube was placed. The following day, the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

subcutaneous tissue, and stainless steel staples b in the skin. An esophagostomy tube was inserted prior to anesthetic recovery. Results of histologic examination of biopsy samples of the stomach and jejunum were within normal limits, and the lymph nodes

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Prolonged use of nasogastric tubes can result in necrosis of the nasal passages, pharynx, or esophagus, and these injuries are often severe and life ending. 5 Surgical cervical esophagostomy has been described as a means of enteral feeding for dysphagic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

released, and an esophagostomy tube was placed on the left side of the neck (1:50 pm ). This was followed by reconstruction of the lower jaw (2:20 pm to 3:30 pm ). The patient was transported from the operating room to the endoscopy suite where

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association