D isorders of equine incisors are common, and traumatic fractures or abrasive wear may result in pulpitis with secondary periapical disease and eventual pulp death. 1 Young horses are particularly prone to traumatic fractures of the incisors, and
-Luella Gottstein Endowment for Equine Research, Stanley L. Alder Research. Funding sources did not have any involvement in the study design, data analysis and interpretation, or writing and publication of the manuscript.
1. Toussaint K , Yang
Arthrocentesis remains a common procedure performed by equine veterinarians and the ability to perform arthrocentesis is expected of veterinary graduates entering equine practice. 1 , 2 A stakeholder survey regarding new
Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether BoNT-A exerts any effects on equine articular cartilage in vitro. Effects of equine recombinant interleukin 1 (rEq IL-1) on cartilage matrix homeostasis and chondrocyte
tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in tendon-derived cells, which are vital for tendon ECM remodeling. In the context of equine DDFT injuries, determining the biological mechanisms controlling macrophages and DDF tenocytes may shed light
vascular anatomy of the palmar digital arteries and its major branches in the equine foot were arteriographically evaluated, and fewer branches were identified than in healthy feet. 18 These studies 13 , 18 show that the importance of arterial vasculature
diagnosed in 72.2% (109/151) cases. Further distribution is provided ( Figure 1 ) .
Flow chart of study population. Number of horses with and without Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH) and its severity. The
-19 chest radiographic detection. 18 , 19
However, the application of DL to equine medicine is much less studied, facing constraints due to the dearth of horse medical images. Despite a few studies exploring DL techniques in horse medical imaging
Despite advances in the diagnosis of equine musculoskeletal pathologies over the last decades, diagnostic analgesia is still an important component of the orthopedic examination in the horse. 1 , 2 Two major disadvantages of the
, and constriction of the vessels ( Figure 2 ) . The chorioallantois was ruptured through the cervical star. Fetal membranes were complete and appeared grossly normal.
Equine fetus with bilateral, symmetrical forelimb amelia