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% sequence identity with canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a). Morphologic Diagnosis and Case Summary Morphologic diagnosis: severe, diffuse, fibrinonecrotizing enteritis with villous blunting and fusion and crypt epithelial degeneration, necrosis, and

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

APPs is related to the severity of the underlying condition and is elevated in dogs with CPV enteritis. 25 A secondary aim was therefore to determine whether there was a correlation between serum cobalamin concentration and age, serum cobalamin and CRP

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Canine parvovirus type 2 is a severe and deadly infectious disease that primarily affects young dogs 1 and was first reported in the mid 1970s. 2 Dogs with parvoviral enteritis caused by CPV-2 infection classically have mucoid to bloody diarrhea

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical signs and lesions and identify the etiologic agent associated with epizootic catarrhal enteritis in domestic ferrets.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—119 ferrets with epizootic diarrhea of presumed viral cause and 5 control ferrets.

Procedure—Clinical records and biopsy or necropsy specimens of ferrets with presumed epizootic catarrhal enteritis were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for coronavirus antigen was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues from approximately 10% of affected ferrets to identify viral antigen and determine its distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on fecal samples and sections of jejunum. Virus isolation studies as well as immunofluorescent tests for other similar viruses were performed.

Results—Characteristic microscopic lesions consistent with intestinal coronavirus infection (vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of villus enterocytes; villus atrophy, fusion, and blunting; and lymphocytic enteritis) were consistently detected in affected ferrets. Coronavirus particles were identified in feces and jejunal enterocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining of jejunal sections revealed coronavirus antigens. Antigen staining was not detected in healthy ferrets or ferrets with other gastrointestinal tract diseases. Virus isolation was unsuccessful, and other similar viruses were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results strongly implicate a coronavirus as the causative agent of epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets. Diagnosis may be made on the basis of a combination of historical, clinical, and microscopic findings. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:526–530)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

dogs with enteritis that were examined at an emergency and referral hospital in the southwestern United States during an 11-month period and to compare the severity of clinical signs and disease outcomes among dogs infected with different CPV strains

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether dogs with naturally occurring canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis have laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—9 dogs with naturally occurring CPV enteritis and 9 age-matched control dogs.

Procedure—Blood was collected from all dogs within 24 hours of admission for thromboelastography (TEG) and determination of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), antithrombin III (AT) activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) concentration, Ddimer concentration, and platelet count were obtained in dogs with CPV enteritis only. Records were reviewed for evidence of thrombosis or phlebitis.

Results—All 9 dogs with CPV enteritis had evidence of hypercoagulability, determined on the basis of significantly increased TEG maximum amplitude and decreased AT activity. Fibrinogen concentration was significantly higher in dogs with CPV enteritis than in control dogs. The aPTT was moderately prolonged in dogs with CPV enteritis, and FDP concentration was < 5 mg/ml in 7 of 9 dogs. No dogs had a measurable D-dimer concentration. Platelet counts were within reference range. Four of 9 dogs had clinical evidence of venous thrombosis or phlebitis associated with catheters. One dog had multifocal splenic thrombosis identified at necropsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with CPV enteritis have a high prevalence of clinical thrombosis or phlebitis and laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability without disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Thromboelastography may help identify hypercoagulable states in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1500–1504)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine breed, sex, and seasonal predisposition for development of canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis in dogs.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Sample Population

Medical records from 283 dogs with confirmed CPV enteritis and from 834 age-matched control dogs that were healthy or had been admitted with nonenteric illness.

Procedure

Effects of season, breed, sex, and neutering on the risk of developing CPV enteritis were examined by calculation of unadjusted odds ratios and performance of multivariate analysis. Stratified and contingency table analyses were performed to identify interactions and confounding among variables.

Results

Rottweilers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Doberman Pinschers, and German Shepherd Dogs were at increased risk and Toy Poodles and Cocker Spaniels were at decreased risk for developing CPV enteritis, compared with that for mixed-breed dogs. For dogs more than 6 months old, sexually intact males were twice as likely as intact females to develop CPV enteritis. Dogs were 3 times more likely to be admitted with CPV enteritis in July, August, and September, compared with the rest of the year. Dogs were 12.7 times more likely to be admitted with CPV enteritis if they had not been currently vaccinated.

Clinical Implications

Lack of vaccination is a significant risk factor for development of CPV enteritis. Seasonal, sex, and breed predispositions for the development of CPV enteritis also exist. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:542–546)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

enteritis (LPE) is the predominant type of inflammation, there are other types, such as neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and granulomatous. Immunohistochemistry and clonality testing are recommended for most FCE cases and required when histopathology results are

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of purified and dry expanded (complex) diets on intestinal structure and function in healthy cats and in a feline model of methotrexate-induced enteritis.

Animals

19 adult specific-pathogen-free cats.

Procedure

Cats were randomized in groups to receive a purified diet intragastrically or a complex diet orally to meet their daily metabolizable energy requirements. After 21 days, cats received either methotrexate (MTX; 10 mg/kg of body weight, IV, n = 12) or saline solution IV (n = 7), and were anesthetized 72 hours later. Celiotomy was performed for aseptic removal of mesenteric lymph nodes, full-thickness biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, and collection of aortic and portal venous blood samples for determination of arteriovenous amino acid concentrations across the intestine.

Results

MTX was associated with severe enterotoxicosis in cats receiving the purified diet, as manifested by diarrhea (4 of 6 cats) and vomiting (2 of 6 cats). One cat receiving the complex diet developed mild diarrhea, and none of these cats vomited. The purified diet was associated with marked villus blunting in the proximal and distal portions of the duodenum and increased bacterial translocation (3 of 6 cats), whereas none of the cats in the complex diet group developed bacterial translocation after MTX administration. For the cats given saline solution, bacterial translocation occurred in 1 of 4 cats receiving the complex diet versus 2 of 3 cats receiving the purified diet.

Conclusions

Feeding of a complex diet containing intact protein as the nitrogen source abrogated the proximal small intestinal atrophy and bacterial translocation associated with feeding an amino acid-based purified diet.

Clinical Relevance

Use of purified diets containing free amino acids as the only nitrogen source cannot be endorsed in human and animal cancer patients receiving systemic chemotherapy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:989–996)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In an abattoir-based case-control study, histologic, and macroscopic examination of porcine intestines at slaughter and 2 molecular assays were compared for use as diagnostic tests of proliferative enteritis (pe). Fecal samples and intestinal specimens were collected from pigs with grossly thick ileum and from clinically normal pigs at slaughter. Tissue specimens were fixed in neutral buffered 10% formalin, and sectioned. Sections stained with H&E were examined for proliferative lesions by a pathologist unaware of the group to which the pig had been assigned on the basis of results of gross examination. Adjacent tissue sections, stained with Warthin-Starry (silver) stain, were examined for presence of the intracellular bacterium of pe, ileal symbiont (is)-intracellularis, in the enterocytes of the intestinal crypts by the senior author, who was unaware either of the group to which the pig had been assigned or diagnosis by the pathologist. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and assayed by dot-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for presence of is-intracellularis dna, without knowledge of results of the other examinations. The pcr assay for is-intracellularis was a specific and sensitive diagnostic test for pe, and dot-blot hybridization was sensitive, but was less specific. Macroscopic examination of intestines at slaughter was a sensitive, but not specific, test.

Association between is-intracellularis and proliferative lesions was statistically examined in the same study. There was a highly significant (P = 0.0078) association between presence of naturally acquired proliferative lesions and intracellular infection induced by is-intracellularis. The odds ratio of ≥ 14 and estimated attributable fraction of ≥ 92% indicate that is-intracellularis may be a necessary cause of pe.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research