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, were negative. No abnormalities were detected on abdominal ultrasonography, and the gastrointestinal tract was found to have normal wall thicknesses and luminal diameters. The dog was prepared for capsule endoscopy as recommended by the manufacturer

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Endoscopy is a minimally invasive percutaneous examination technique that can be used for colorauthentic visualization of the epidural space located inside the vertebral canal. 1 The epidural space is a potential space that surrounds the spinal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

clinical importance of transient bacteremia in animals following minimally invasive procedures such as gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. No evidence exists to suggest that clinically relevant bacteremia is associated with gastrointestinal biopsy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, the complication rate plateaued after 601 procedures performed over 3 years. In addition to technical challenges, the success of incorporating rigid endoscopy and laparoscopy in a general practice is contingent on economic viability. 16 In

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

this occasion, respiratory tract endoscopy was performed with a 2.5-m (10.4-mm-diameter) videoendoscope. Thick, sanguinous mucus and fresh and clotted blood were identified in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Mucus and blood were viewed tracking from

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

was unremarkable, including the portion of the colonic wall that was able to be visualized (cranial to the pubis). A gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were then performed under general anesthesia. The lower gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Tracheal collapse (TC) is a common cause of respiratory difficulty and cough in older small and toy-breed dogs. 1 , 2 Endoscopy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of TC, detecting concurrent diseases, and identifying

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether cytologic examination of exfoliative specimens obtained during endoscopy was as useful as histologic examination of mucosal biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract disease in dogs and cats and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 techniques (brush or touch) in preparing specimens for cytologic examination.

Design

Prospective case series.

Animals

85 dogs and 23 cats.

Procedure

Specimens for cytologic and histologic examination were obtained during routine endoscopic examination of the stomach, small intestine, and colon. A diagnosis was made on the basis of cytologic findings (graded objectively) and compared with the diagnosis on the basis of histologic findings.

Results

The diagnostic accuracy of cytologic examination was high for all 3 organs. Sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values of positive and negative results were > 90% in most instances. The diagnostic accuracy of the brush technique was equal or superior to that of the touch technique for 84% of specimens. The brush technique was most useful in detecting cellular infiltrates in the lamina propria, whereas the touch technique was more likely to detect acute mucosal inflammation. Percentages of false-positive (3.2%) and false-negative (6.9%) cytologic interpretations were low.

Clinical Implications

Endoscopy is safe and requires little time to procure specimens for cytologic examination, which can be obtained concurrently with mucosal biopsy specimens. Cytologic examination of exfoliative specimens obtained during endoscopy is a useful and reliable adjunct to histologic examination of biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract disease in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1755–1759)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy is recognized as an important and commonly used technique for diagnosis and treatment in small animal practice. To acquire dexterity in endoscopic techniques before proceeding to live patients, students require

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

intervention. There were no short- or long-term effects from this complication. Eighteen (50%) dogs had a recheck endoscopy 6 weeks after ELA of vaginal remnant. At that time, 100% were fully healed with no reoccurrence of the malformation and a fully open

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association