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E lbow dysplasia (ED) is a complex developmental disease of the elbow joint and is one of the most common orthopedic problems affecting large- and giant-breed dogs. 1 – 3 Elbow dysplasia encompasses a group of primary lesions involving the

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To examine the relationship between physical signs of elbow dysplasia and radiographic appearance of the elbow joints in growing dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

55 Rottweiler pups.

Procedure

Owners of clinically normal Rottweiler pups were contacted through breed clubs in 3 Australian states and asked to participate in the study. All those offering to participate were included.

Procedure

The first physical examination was performed when pups were 3 months old and included a lameness evaluation and palpation of the elbow joints. Physical examinations were repeated when pups were 5, 6, 9, and 12 months old. Radiographs of the elbows were obtained at 6 and 12 months. Relationships among lameness, decreased range of movement, signs of pain, and radiographic data related to elbow dysplasia were examined.

Results

Elbow dysplasia caused clinical lameness in only 3 dogs but 57% of dogs developed radiographic signs of elbow dysplasia by 12 months of age. A grade-2 radiographic score at 12 months of age was significantly associated with clinical elbow dysplasia.

Clinical Implications

Elbow dysplasia has a prevalence of > 50% in certain breed populations. This study supports radiographic screening at 12 months of age, accompanied by physical examination to detect clinical elbow dysplasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1427–1430)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of medial coronoid process and humeral condyle lesions in dysplastic cubital joints and to compare survey radiography and MRI for evaluation of fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) and lesions of the medial aspect of the humeral condyle (MAHC).

Animals

18 dogs with elbow dysplasia.

Procedure

Radiography of 22 cubital joints was performed. The 22 joints then underwent MRI. The scans were evaluated with regard to the shape and signal of the coronoid process; articular cartilage change, subchondral bone disruption of the MAHC. Surgical findings were used as the standard to calculate accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for specific diagnosis of FMCP (free fragment) and lesions of the MAHC.

Results

At surgery, 31.8% of the joints had FMCP (free), 36.4% had nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process, and 27.2% had nondisplaced mineralized coronoid process. Eleven joints had lesions of the MAHC, and wear lesions were observed in 41 % of the joints. On radiography, FMCP (free) was visualized in 9% of the joints and lesions of the MAHC were observed in 23%. MRI had the highest accuracy (95.5%), sensitivity (100%), and negative-predictive value (100%) for detection of FMCP (free), and had accuracy (91 %), sensitivity (87.5%), specificity (92.5%), and positive (87.5%)- and negative (92.5%)- predictive values for detection of nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process.

Conclusions and Clinical relevance

Compared with radiography, MRI was useful for detection of nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process; images consistently correlated with surgical findings. The technique is accurate and especially useful when radiographic findings are inconclusive. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1367–1370)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

screw fixation via an open arthrotomy with a proximal ulnar osteotomy if bridging is not evident 11 , 12 or an ulnar osteotomy alone if bridging is apparent. 4 Computed tomography is described as a diagnostic tool to characterize elbow dysplasia, 13

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

defect), endocrine disorders (hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and hypothyroidism), orthopedic disorders (elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, IVDD, patellar luxation, and ruptured cranial cruciate ligament), and other (atopy or allergic dermatitis

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Elbow dysplasia is a common developmental anomaly in dogs. The term comprises fragmented medial coronoid process, ununited anconeal process, osteochondrosis dissecans, and joint incongruency. 1 Inherited, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe and evaluate a new radiographic view of the elbow joint in dogs that would potentially enhance observation of the medial coronoid process (MCP).

Sample Population—20 cadaver limbs from 10 dogs and clinical examination of 100 elbow joints of 53 dogs.

Procedure—Twenty elbow joints from 10 cadavers were imaged by use of mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, craniocaudal, craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique (Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views before and after placement of 3 lead pellets placed on the cranial, medial, and craniodistal aspect of the MCP. Three examiners independently reviewed these radiographs. One hundred elbow joints of 53 dogs with forelimb lameness and signs of pain elicited on palpation of the elbow joint were examined. These joints were radiographed and treated by use of arthroscopy. Three examiners independently graded the radiographs.

Results—The MCP was identified on all Di35M-PrLO views made during the anatomic study. The Di35M-PrLO view had the largest area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve for detection of abnormalities of the MCP. Fractured and nonfractured MCP could only be significantly differentiated on Di35M-PrLO and mediolateral views. The Di35M-PrLO view had a higher agreement between examiners than other radiographic views for detection of fractures of the MCP.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The Di35M-PrLO view enhances the identification of anomalies and fragmentation of the MCP in dogs, compared with other radiographic views. The Di35M-PrLO view may be of benefit for early screening of dogs potentially affected with elbow dysplasia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1000–1005)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of sliding and wedge osteotomies of the humerus on the joint surface contact areas in anatomically normal elbow joints of dogs.

Sample Population—Left thoracic limbs from 5 skeletally mature mixed-breed canine cadavers.

Procedure—Joint casting was performed by placement of colored polymethylmethacrylate in the elbow joint cavity followed by loading in a materials testing system at physiologic angle and load. Joint casting was performed in unaltered specimens, after 10° medial opening wedge osteotomy, and after lateral sliding osteotomy of the proximal portion of the humerus. Computer-aided analysis of photographs of proximal radial and ulnar articular surfaces after each casting procedure was performed.

Results—The lateral sliding humeral osteotomy and 10° medial opening wedge osteotomy significantly altered joint surface contact regions of the canine elbow joint. Osteotomies resulted in a reduction in the size of the radial, ulnar, and combined radioulnar contact areas. Both osteotomies also resulted in craniolateral migration of the radial contact area and craniomedial recession of the ulnar contact area. Although the reduction in ulnar contact area with these treatments is consistent with our hypotheses, the reduction in radial contact area was not anticipated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Humeral osteotomies alter joint surface contact areas of the canine elbow joint in vitro. Humeral osteotomies may decrease contact areas on the diseased region of the joint in dogs with elbow dysplasia; however, the overall decrease in joint surface contact area suggests that these procedures may induce focal increases in pressure that may cause iatrogenic cartilage damage when applied in vivo. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:506–511)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To analyze familial clustering and genetic risk for various forms of elbow dysplasia (ED) in Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD) in The Netherlands and define possible means to select against ED.

Animals

98 BMD born in 1992 and 64 BMD born in 1995.

Procedure

Dogs were examined radiographically when 12 to 18 months old. The population was resolved into familial clusters, and distribution of ED for the clusters was analyzed. Common ancestors associated with each form of ED were identified, and risk for having ED in the 64 offspring born in 1995 was calculated by relatedness to common ancestors. Risk was compared with radiographic outcome.

Results

The 2 forms of ED identified were fragmented coronoid process (FCP) and elbow joint incongruity (INC). Incidence of ED decreased from 63/98 (64%) in 1992 to 29/64 (45%) in 1995. None of the familial clusters was free of FCP or INC. Common ancestors associated with FCP differed from those associated with INC. There was more potential variation in risk for FCP and INC in the 64 offspring than was achieved by breeders, indicating a decrease in population heterogeneity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

FCP and INC had differing familial sources; thus, they most likely are different genetic traits. Although Incidence of ED decreased from 1992 through 1995, we did not detect variation among pedigrees in genetic risk for ED remaining in the offspring born in 1995; thus, selection among families cannot further improve ED health status of BMD in The Netherlands. Phenotypic selection within families remains the only alternative. [Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1082-1087)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Adysplastic elbow joint (elbow dysplasia) is one of the most common causes of forelimb lameness in dogs. Elbow dysplasia is used to describe developmental abnormalities of the elbow joint in dogs and encompasses 4 primary lesions (FCP, ununited

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research