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Abstract

Objective

To protect neonatal calves against fatal salmonellosis within the first 2 weeks after birth, using chicken egg yolk antibodies specific against Salmonella typhimurium or S dublin.

Animals

38 neonatal Holstein calves from Salmonella-free farms.

Procedure

After removal of the lipid components with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, egg yolk antibodies were spray dried. At 4 days of age, calves were challenge exposed by oral inoculation with 1011 virulent S typhimurium (experiment 1) or S dublin (experiment 2). Starting from the challenge-exposure day, egg yolk antibody preparations were administered orally 3 times a day for 7 to 10 days.

Results

In passive immunization trials, the orally administered antibodies conferred dose-dependent protection against infection with each of the homologous strains of Salmonella. Within 7 to 10 days after challenge exposure, all control calves died, whereas low-titer antibody-treated calves had 60 to 100% mortality. Only fever and diarrhea, but no deaths (P < 0.01), were observed in calves given the highest titer of antibody.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Compared with that in control calves, survival was significantly higher among calves given antibodies with titers of 500 (P < 0.05) and 1,000 (P < 0.01) homotypic for S typhimurium and with titer of 5,000 (P < 0.01) for S dublin. Egg yolk antibodies specific for whole cell S typhimurium or S dublin are protective against fatal salmonellosis when given in sufficiently high concentration, and may be clinically useful during a salmonellosis outbreak. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:416–420)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Chicken egg yolk IgG can be absorbed and transferred as efficiently as colostral antibodies in the blood of neonatal pigs. Egg yolk IgG has a half-life of 1.85 days in newborn pig serum. This is shorter than the reported half-life (12 to 14 days) of homologous IgG in serum of pigs. Similar to colostral antibodies, egg yolk IgG absorption from intestine ceased at about 34 hours of age, after a logarithmic decrease in absorption rate from birth. Egg yolk IgG absorption inhibition time in the gastrointestinal tract took 1.73 hours to decrease by half. Egg yolk IgG was protective against experimentally induced diarrhea in pigs when it was administered at high dose, and multiple dosing was instituted. Adverse effects were not observed when chicken egg yolk IgG was administered orally to pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, we hypothesized the corresponding ERVA epitopes would be protective in foals. Rotavirus-specific egg yolk antibodies have shown to be therapeutically effective against RV infections by significantly reducing the duration of diarrhea in a variety of

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The protective effects of egg yolk powder prepared from hens vaccinated with heat-extracted antigens from K99-piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (etec) strain 431 were evaluated in a colostrum-fed calf model of etec-induced diarrhea caused by a heterologous strain (B44). The antibody powder was obtained by spray-drying the water-soluble protein fraction of egg yolks after removing the lipid and fatty components by precipitation with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate. A total of 16 colostrum-fed calves were studied to determine whether the orally administered antibody powder would prevent fatal bovine colibacillosis caused by a virulent etec strain. Clinical response of individual calves was monitored and evaluated in the context of these variables: fecal consistency score, intestinal colonization, weight loss, and mortality. Control calves that were treated with vehicle (milk with egg yolk powder from nonimmunized hens) had severe diarrhea and dehydration and died within 72 hours after infection was manifested. In contrast, calves fed milk containing egg yolk powder with antipili agglutinin titers of 1:800 and 1:1,600 had transient diarrhea, 100% survival, and good body weight gain during the course of the study. Results indicate that the orally administered egg yolk powder protected against etec-induced diarrhea in neonatal calves and that the protective components may have been the antibodies raised by vaccination of chickens against etec.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

interassay variability ranged from 1.1% to 10%, and the calculated mean recovery for meloxicam was 95%. Meloxicam was extracted from egg yolks by means of a solid-phase extraction technique using HPLC. For each egg, 1 mL of yolk was placed in a tube

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

/mL. The intra- and interassay variability ranged from 0.5% to 6.6%, and the calculated mean recovery for meloxicam was 90%. Meloxicam was extracted from egg yolks by means of a solid-phase extraction technique by using high-performance liquid

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To establish whether Mycobacterium paratuberculosis could be cultured from Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline solution (dpbss) and to test 3 sampling methods, dpbss supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum was inoculated with M paratuberculosis at concentrations of 104, 103, 102, 101, and 100 colony-forming units/ml. The inoculated media was sampled after mixing, after centrifugation, and after centrifugation and decontamination with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride. The samples were inoculated onto 3 slants of Herrolds egg yolk medium supplemented with sodium pyruvate and mycobactin J and 1 slant without mycobactin J. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated following all 3 sampling methods for all concentrations. Treatment with hexadecylpyridinium chloride decreased the number of colonies isolated.

To test the efficacy of a 10-step wash procedure for removing M paratuberculosis from bovine ova, washed zona pellucida intact bovine ova were incubated in dpbss supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum containing concentrations of 104, 103, 102, 101, and 100 colony-forming units of M paratuberculosis/ml for 12 hours at 22 C. Ten zona pellucida intact ova were removed from each concentration and washed by passing through 10 changes of dpbss supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum. The media from each wash step was inoculated onto slants of Herrolds egg yolk medium. The ova were included with the tenth wash step. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from 1 of 10 tenth-wash steps at the 104 concentration and 5 of 10 tenth-wash steps at 103.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether Mycobacterium paratuberculosis could survive in colostrum after pasteurization. Additionally, this study investigated the effect pasteurization had on IgG concentration in colostrum.

Animals

Colostrum samples were collected from cattle (beef and dairy) owned by the state of Ohio.

Procedure

Colostrum was divided into aliquots and inoculated with variable concentrations of M paratuberculosis (ATCC No. 19698: 104, 103, and 102 colony-forming units/ml). Half the samples at each concentration were subjected to pasteurization temperatures (63 C) for 30 minutes and the remainder were kept at approximately 20 to 23 C. All samples were incubated (Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without mycobactin J) and observed for growth during the next 16 weeks. Additionally, the IgG concentration of colostrum was determined by radioimmunoassay before and after pasteurization. Samples that coagulated at pasteurization temperatures were mechanically resuspended before measurement of IgG concentration.

Results

Growth of M paratuberculosis was retarded but not eliminated by pasteurization. Growth was observed in all unpasteurized samples incubated on Herrold's egg yolk medium with mycobactin J but in only 2 of 18 pasteurized samples similarly cultured. Growth from pasteurized samples appeared 5 to 9 weeks after growth was observed from nonpasteurized samples.

Mean colostral IgG concentration was 44.4 g/L in nonpasteurized samples and 37.2 g/L in pasteurized sample, a decrease of 12.3%. High-quality colostrum (> 48 g of IgG/L) had a significantly greater loss of IgG concentration than did colostrum of lesser quality (P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Pasteurization lessened, but did not eliminate, growth of M paratuberculosis from experimentally inoculated colostrum samples. Pasteurization resulted in a significant decrease in colostral IgG concentration but not to an unmanageable level that would preclude the colostrum's use for passive transfer of immunity.

Clinical Relevance

Colostrum is macrophage rich and may serve as a source of M paratuberculosis infection to calves. Pasteurization of colostrum may lessen the risk of infection, but will not totally eliminate M paratuberculosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1580–1585)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate sensitivity of microbial culture of pooled fecal samples for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) in large dairy herds and assess the use of the method for estimation of MAP prevalence.

Animals—1,740 lactating cows from 29 dairy herds in California.

Procedure—Serum from each cow was tested by use of a commercial ELISA kit. Individual fecal samples were cultured and used to create pooled fecal samples (10 randomly selected fecal samples/pool; 6 pooled samples/herd). Sensitivity of MAP detection was compared between Herrold's egg yolk (HEY) agar and a new liquid culture method. Bayesian methods were used to estimate true prevalence of MAP-infected cows and herd sensitivity.

Results—Estimated sensitivity for pooled fecal samples among all herds was 0.69 (25 culture-positive pools/36 pools that were MAP positive). Sensitivity increased as the number of culture-positive samples in a pool increased. The HEY agar method detected more infected cows than the liquid culture method but had lower sensitivity for pooled fecal samples. Prevalence of MAP-infected cows was estimated to be 4% (95% probability interval, 2% to 6%) on the basis of culture of pooled fecal samples. Herd-level sensitivity estimate ranged from 90% to 100% and was dependent on prevalence in the population and the sensitivity for culture of pooled fecal samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of pooled fecal samples from 10 cows was a cost-effective tool for herd screening and may provide a good estimate of the percentage of MAP-infected cows in dairy herds with a low prevalence of MAP. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1061–1070)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To assess the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in feces of dogs with and without diarrhea, and to compare the use of microbial cultures from fecal specimens and evaluation of stained fecal smears for endospores with the presence of enterotoxin as tools for diagnosing C perfringens-associated diarrhea.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

144 dogs representing hospitalized dogs with (n = 41) or without (50) diarrhea, and clinically normal dogs treated as outpatients (53).

Procedure

Fresh fecal specimens from all dogs were examined as Gram-stained fecal smears to determine numbers of Gram-positive spore-forming rods/100X objective field. Enterotoxin was assayed directly by use of a reverse passive latex agglutination assay. Fecal specimens were plated directly to prereduced egg yolk agar plates and incubated overnight at 37 C in an anaerobic chamber. At 24 hours, up to 3 lecithinase-positive colonies were subcultured to Brucella blood agar to evaluate for double zone hemolysis. Colonies with double zone hemolysis were tested for aerotolerance and Gram-stained.

Results

A significant difference was not detected among groups with respect to the presence of C perfringens as determined by culture, the presence of endospores, and the reaction patterns of fecal enterotoxin assays. An association was not found between number of endospores and the presence of fecal enterotoxin.

Clinical Implications

The presence of C perfringens enterotoxin in feces of dogs, as detected by the latex agglutination assay used in this study, correlates poorly with the number of fecal endospores, regardless of the dog's clinical status. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:357–360)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association