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T ransesophageal echocardiography (TEE), often indicated during cardiac surgery, is becoming increasingly adopted as a tool when hemodynamic instability occurs during noncardiac procedures in humans. 1 – 4 Several protocols consisting of a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and Accipitriformes being affected most often. Recent interest in transcoelomic echocardiography in birds has resulted in reports 4–11 of the technique, standardized examination protocols, and reference ranges for echocardiographic measurements in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

alternatives for the measurement of CO are needed for clinical and research purposes. The widespread availability and recent advances in ultrasound technology are reasons that echocardiography should be considered as a noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring tool

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

One of the most common applications of echocardiography in veterinary and human medicine is the assessment of LV size and function. Several common cardiac diseases of dogs, including myxomatous mitral valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

volume measurement in veterinary medicine has relied on 2-D modalities, such as cineangiocardiography, 3,4 equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, 5–7 or echocardiography. 8–10 All of these techniques require geometric modeling because 3-D volumes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-mode echocardiography according to recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 ; measurements were compared with reference range values. 17 Measurements of the aorta and left atrium were obtained with a 2D method, and LA/Ao was calculated and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the scale of the y-axis differs among panels. Table 1— Mean ± SD values for regional quantitative MP determined by use of contrast echocardiography with a contrast agent administered at each of 2 CRIs * to 6 healthy adult dogs

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

necessary to obtain reliable results with a feasible method. Echocardiography is a technique frequently used to assess cardiac function and to measure ventricular volumes in veterinary medicine 6 as well as in human medicine, 7 whereas CMRI is the proposed

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

because it is difficult to exclude the presence of pulmonary veins and the left atrial appendage from a region of interest. 5 A novel method has been developed for tracking the left atrial wall movement via 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography, and this

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research