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History A 14-year-old multiparous Saddlebred broodmare was presented at 304 days of gestation for evaluation of abortion and dystocia. Manual vaginal examination on the farm revealed the fetus to be in cranial longitudinal presentation and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Dystocia is the lack of normal progression of parturition, usually involving lack of or difficulty in expulsion of fetuses through the birth canal. The incidence of dystocia differs among animal species owing to differences in anatomic and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The reported incidence of dystocia requiring mechanical extraction or cesarean section in dairy heifers and cows in the United States is 6.8% and 3.5%, respectively. 1 In comparison, fewer beef heifers and cows require such intervention (3.9% and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Dystocia is one of the true emergency situations encountered in equine practice. 1–3 In normal births, foals are born within 20 to 30 minutes after rupture of the chorioallantoic membrane. 4–6 Few foals born > 40 minutes after chorioallantioc

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a cesarean section because of dystocia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique, number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative treatments, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone conversations with owners.

Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly higher than the proportion of goats that did (2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. The most common reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation of the cervix. The most common surgical approach was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia. The most common complication following surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials was associated with a lower rate of complications. All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant and had no problems with dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cesarean section is an effective method of resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:275–279)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In the report “Survival rate and short-term fertility rate associated with the use of fetotomy for the resolution of dystocia in mares: 72 cases (1991–2005)” ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 230;1502–1505), the dosage for detomidine chloridrate in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Cesarean section is performed in approximately 15% to 25% of mares admitted to equine referral hospitals because of dystocia. 1,2 It may also be performed as an emergency procedure in mares with laminitis, endotoxemia, colic, peritonitis, or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In South American camelids, dystocia is a rare occurrence (1% to 5%). 1 Reported causes for dystocia in South American camelids are abnormal fetal position or presentation, failure of cervical dilatation, uterine torsion, uterine inertia, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

expectation of a reduction in the incidence of retained fetal membranes or metritis of 6% (95% confidence; 80% power). 14 Outcome variables and case definitions Outcome variables were the incidence of dystocia, clinical hypocalcemia, retained fetal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

events being stillbirth, dystocia, twinning, and parturient paresis. 5 In addition, RP is associated with impaired immune function in the 1 to 2 weeks before parturition. 6–8 Some routinely measured biochemical and hematologic analytes may be useful in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association