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may reflect a dysphoric-like state, which is common with opioid administration, including hydromorphone, in multiple species. 3 , 9 , 12 Additionally, dysphoria and excitation, including vocalization, are more commonly encountered when opioids are

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

further hypothesized that remifentanil doses that induce dysphoria in awake cats would increase isoflurane MAC in anesthetized cats. Therefore, the study reported here was conducted to evaluate the effects of remifentanil administration on measures of

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. In the present study; however, it was possible to place IV catheters in all cats without any further administration of sedative drugs. Agitation, dysphoria, or vomiting was not observed in either group. A minimum oxygen flow rate of 1 L/min was used

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

decrease in SAP. A constant rate IV infusion of medetomidine (1 μg/kg/h) was initiated, which provided control of the dysphoria and decreased SAP to approximately 160 mm Hg. The dog continued to receive this treatment combination until 42 hours after the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

instances of hypothermia (body temperature, < 35.5°C [95.9°F]), and any other perianesthetic complications such as hypertension, vomiting or regurgitation, cardiac arrhythmias, dysphoria, respiratory distress, hypoxemia, reintubation, and prolonged recovery

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the effects of ketamine administration on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and on acid-base balance and to record adverse effects of ketamine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult mongrel dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane (1.25 times the individual minimum alveolar concentration) in oxygen, and ketamine was administered IV to target pseudo–steady-state plasma concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 µg/mL. Isoflurane concentration was reduced to an equipotent concentration. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and acid-base variables; body temperature; urine production; and adverse effects were recorded before and during noxious stimulation. Cardiac index, stroke index, rate-pressure product, systemic vascular resistance index, pulmonary vascular resistance index, left ventricular stroke work index, right ventricular stroke work index, arterial oxygen concentration, mixed-venous oxygen concentration, oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption, oxygen extraction ratio, alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure gradient, and venous admixture were calculated. Plasma ketamine and norketamine concentrations were measured.

Results—Overall, ketamine administration improved ventilation, oxygenation, hemodynamics, and oxygen delivery in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs in a dosedependent manner. With the addition of ketamine, core body temperature was maintained or increased and urine production was maintained at an acceptable amount. However, at the higher plasma ketamine concentrations, adverse effects such as spontaneous movement and profuse salivation were observed. Myoclonus and dysphoria were observed during recovery in most dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusion of ketamine appears to be a suitable technique for balanced anesthesia with isoflurane in dogs. Plasma ketamine concentrations between 2 to 3 µg/mL elicited the most benefits with minimal adverse effects. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2122–2129)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare physiologic and analgesic effects of morphine when given by IV constant-rate infusion or by IM injection to dogs undergoing laparotomy and to determine pharmacokinetics of morphine in dogs following IV constant-rate infusion.

Design—Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs undergoing laparotomy were treated with morphine beginning at the time of anesthetic induction. Morphine was administered by IV infusion (0.12 mg/kg/h [0.05 mg/lb/h] of body weight) or by IM injection (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) at induction and extubation and every 4 hours thereafter. Treatments continued for 24 hours after extubation.

Results—Blood gas values did not indicate clinically significant respiratory depression in either group, and degree of analgesia (determined as the University of Melbourne Pain Scale score) and incidence of adverse effects (panting, vomiting, defecation, and dysphoria) were not significantly different between groups. Dogs in both groups had significant decreases in mean heart rate, rectal temperature, and serum sodium and potassium concentrations, compared with preoperative values. Mean ± SEM total body clearance of morphine was 68 ± 6 ml/min/kg (31 ± 3 ml/min/lb). Mean steady-state serum morphine concentration in dogs receiving morphine by constant-rate infusion was 30 ± 2 ng/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that administration of morphine as a constantrate IV infusion at a dose of 0.12 mg/kg/h induced effects similar to those obtained with administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg, IM, every 4 hours in dogs undergoing laparotomy. Panting was attributed to an opioidinduced resetting of the hypothalamic temperature set point, rather than respiratory depression. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:884–891)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate tramadol for treatment of signs of pain and impaired mobility in geriatric cats with osteoarthritis.

DESIGN Randomized controlled crossover trial.

ANIMALS 24 client-owned geriatric (≥ 10 years old) cats with osteoarthritis.

PROCEDURES Otherwise healthy cats with owner-identified mobility impairment and clinical and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis involving at least 1 appendicular joint were enrolled in the study. Cats were treated with tramadol orally at dosages of 0 (placebo), 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg (0, 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 mg/lb) twice a day for 5 days, with a 2-day (weekend) washout period between treatments. Mobility was assessed with a collar-mounted activity monitor system, and impairments in activity were assessed with a client-completed questionnaire.

RESULTS 17 cats completed the study; 7 cats were withdrawn. There was a significant increase in activity with the 2-mg/kg dosage of tramadol, compared with activity when cats received the placebo. Significantly more owners (11/18) considered their cats to have improved with the 2-mg/kg treatment, compared with all other dosages (6/19 to 8/21). Most owners (17/20 [85%]) considered their cat's global quality of life to have improved during the study. Adverse events, predominantly euphoria, dysphoria, sedation, decreased appetite, and diarrhea, were significantly more frequent with the 4-mg/kg (8/19) and 2-mg/kg (6/18) treatments but not with the 1-mg/kg (2/21) treatment, compared with frequency of adverse events with the placebo (0/21).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a beneficial effect of twice-daily oral administration of tramadol at a dosage of 2 mg/kg in geriatric cats with osteoarthritis. Adverse events were dose dependent, and caution should be exercised in cats that have concurrent disease or are receiving other drugs that may produce adverse gastrointestinal effects.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

displayed behavioral alterations, including overall increased and uncoordinated locomotor activity, lip licking, or digging. In several species, “dysphoric” behaviors have been described following opioid administration. 8 , 22 – 28 Dysphoria is a known

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

during the postoperative period to manage signs of pain and has the advantage of only rarely causing dysphoria or vomiting. Results of a study involving healthy cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy suggest that it is also appropriate for perioperative use

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association