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History A 12-week-old 2.5-kg female chihuahua mix was presented by the breeder for the appearance of duplicate anuses, vulvas, and tails ( Figure 1 ) . No other littermates were affected, and this dog was smaller than the rest of the litter

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the urethra of the cat in Figure 1 obtained on day 11 of hospitalization. A—Passage of contrast in 2 separate lumens is evident. A sinus dorsal to the urethra (thick arrow) was subsequently identified as a partial urethral duplication (accessory

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Intermittent incontinence can be associated with incomplete urethral duplication in dogs.

  • Urethral duplication in dogs can be diagnosed by urethrography, voiding cystourethrography, or radiography after direct administration of positive contrast medium into cystic structures, if present.

  • Surgical removal of the urethral duplication and cysts can be curative in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of activating internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in exons 11 and 12 of c-kit in mast cell tumors (MCTs) of dogs and to correlate these mutations with prognosis.

Sample Population—157 formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded MCTs from dogs in the pathology database of the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis.

Procedure—Genomic DNA was isolated from tumor specimens and a polymerase chain reaction procedure was performed to determine whether there were ITDs in exons 11 and 12.

Results—We identified ITDs in 1 of 12 (8%) grade-I, 42 of 119 (35%) grade-II, and 9 of 26 (35%) grade-III tumors (overall prevalence, 52 of 157 [33%]). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of grade-II and -III tumors possessing an ITD were approximately 5 times greater than that for grade-I tumors, although these odds did not differ significantly. Although MCTs possessing an ITD were twice as likely to recur after excision and twice as likely to result in metastasis as those without an ITD, these values also did not differ significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results provide evidence that ITDs in c-kit occur frequently in MCTs of dogs. The high prevalence of c-kit activating mutations in MCTs of dogs combined with the relative abundance of mast cell disease in dogs provide an ideal naturally developing tumor in which to test the safety and efficacy of novel small-molecule kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1718–1723)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

thermometers, and both microchips were obtained in duplicate as near simultaneously as possible (all 10 readings were accomplished within 90 seconds in each dog). Because the PA catheter-derived temperature was provided as a continuous digital reading, it was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

manufacturer reference and the other was a duplicate model; therefore, 7 FPO models (FPO 1 through 7) e–k remained in the study. The reference for Sp o 2 was determined with a medical-grade handheld PO. l Eight POs (7 FPOs and the reference PO) were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

). Concentrations of the DNA samples were measured by use of a fluorimeter. o The operator (AMM) was blinded to the identity of these DNA samples until the results had been determined. Duplicates of each of the 18 samples, for both LAMP assays, were tested 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

times with PBS solution, seeded at 3 × 10 4 live nucleated cells/cm 2 in T75 flasks in duplicates, and maintained in the same conditions for 24 hours. SPIO labeling —One duplicate of each cell culture was randomly chosen by tossing a coin, and MSCs

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research