administered in a randomized order ( https://www.randomizer.org/ ). Baseline data were collected before dobutamine (DOBU baseline ), esmolol (ESMO baseline ), phenylephrine (PHEN baseline ), and high-dose isoflurane (highISO baseline ). Predetermined
involving adrenergic receptor agonists. Dopamine hydrochloride and dobutamine hydrochloride are commonly used as positive inotropic agents in small and large animals. 9–16 Both drugs are capable of increasing myocardial contractility via direct β 1
improve hypotension. 8 The catecholamines dobutamine and norepinephrine are commonly used in critically ill horses 9,10 and companion animals 11,12 to treat hypotension. Dobutamine, an inotropic agent with predominant effects on β 1 - and β 2 -receptors
with an MAP of 65 mm Hg.
The CO or CI is rarely measured under clinical situations, despite their ability to provide an assessment of overall cardiovascular function. Dobutamine and norepinephrine are used in critically ill neonatal foals to treat
increase arterial blood pressure to within acceptable limits.
The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the cardiopulmonary effects of increasing doses of dopamine, dobutamine, epinephrine, and phenylephrine and measure plasma concentrations
anesthesia and optimize cardiac output through treatment of arrhythmias, replacement of volume deficits, and administration of positive inotropic drugs such as dopamine hydrochloride and dobutamine hydrochloride. 15
Dopamine is an endogenous catecholamine
in anesthetized cats administered dobutamine. We compared the LV MPI with other cardiac indexes in anesthetized cats administered dobutamine.
Materials and Methods
Animals —The study reported here was conducted in accordance with the Guidelines
euhydrated horses and in horses after physiologically (ie, exercise) or pharmacologically (ie, furosemide or dobutamine) induced changes in renal function. We hypothesized that meloxicam would have similar effects on renal responses to exercise and furosemide
Dobutamine hydrochloride is a β 1 -adrenoceptor agonist used for treating hypotension in anesthetized horses. 1,2 Initial studies 3–5 revealed that dobutamine increases ABP predominantly by increasing . More recently, dobutamine has been
effects such as dobutamine are used to improve cardiac contractility and output. 2 These catecholamines can have deleterious effects when used alone in patients with shock and, therefore, are often used together. 2 In many species including humans