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systemic concentrations of cytokines, which can lead to deleterious effects on immune and organ function and patient outcomes. 3 Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β are 2 cytokines that are increased early in equine sepsis and are known to contribute

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

D isturbances of homeostasis by infection, trauma, or immunological disorders activate leukocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. When activated, these cells release cytokines such as interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), and tumor necrosis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, tendonitis, and desmitis) in horses, dogs, and humans. 4 – 8 These products are thought to exert their effects by concentrating anti-inflammatory proteins in plasma, cytokine-releasing leukocytes, and platelets that release growth factors after activation. 9

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, and metabolic pathways. 1–5 Myocardial infiltration of inflammatory cells in people, rodents, and dogs with cardiac disease has been reported, and both inflammatory and myocardial cells produce cytokines. 1,5 Depending on their role in inflammation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

5 in humans who exercised while breathing cold air. Our initial investigations into the effects of cold air on inflammatory pathways in the airways of horses serendipitously identified a clear bias toward cytokine expression of T H 2 cells 5 hours

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 7 Circulating concentrations of inflammatory molecules, including acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, are high in obese humans, with higher concentrations seen in obese patients with insulin resistance and type II diabetes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

potent cytokines released by myeloid cells, such as TNFα and IL-1, promotes a cascade of events that results in sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in tissues and parenchymal dysfunction. 11 Inflammatory responses are beneficial in recognition

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to tissue injury following stress failure of the pulmonary capillaries may involve the production of cytokines at the site of inflammation, which may be accompanied by a systemic acute-phase response. Because airway inflammation involves the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the CSF, making differentiation solely based on CSF analysis impossible. Detection and quantitation of biological markers (eg, cytokines, chemokines, and other effector molecules) in the neural tissue of humans have facilitated definitive diagnosis by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

phagocytosis in large numbers of cells on a cell-by-cell basis. 25,26 Equine neutrophils are capable of expressing an array of proinflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines, 5,28,29 many of which are upregulated during severe equine asthma. 30–36 It

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research