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proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. 4 , 5 Chronic inflammation is also believed to be the primary cause of feline injection-site sarcoma, which presents with different histologic variants. 6 Acute phase proteins (APPs) and cytokines are 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and metabolic pathways. 1–5 Myocardial infiltration of inflammatory cells in people, rodents, and dogs with cardiac disease has been reported, and both inflammatory and myocardial cells produce cytokines. 1,5 Depending on their role in inflammation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 7 Circulating concentrations of inflammatory molecules, including acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, are high in obese humans, with higher concentrations seen in obese patients with insulin resistance and type II diabetes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

5 in humans who exercised while breathing cold air. Our initial investigations into the effects of cold air on inflammatory pathways in the airways of horses serendipitously identified a clear bias toward cytokine expression of T H 2 cells 5 hours

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

potent cytokines released by myeloid cells, such as TNFα and IL-1, promotes a cascade of events that results in sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in tissues and parenchymal dysfunction. 11 Inflammatory responses are beneficial in recognition

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to tissue injury following stress failure of the pulmonary capillaries may involve the production of cytokines at the site of inflammation, which may be accompanied by a systemic acute-phase response. Because airway inflammation involves the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the CSF, making differentiation solely based on CSF analysis impossible. Detection and quantitation of biological markers (eg, cytokines, chemokines, and other effector molecules) in the neural tissue of humans have facilitated definitive diagnosis by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

phagocytosis in large numbers of cells on a cell-by-cell basis. 25,26 Equine neutrophils are capable of expressing an array of proinflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines, 5,28,29 many of which are upregulated during severe equine asthma. 30–36 It

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

production of B cells can occur when hematopoietic stem cells are cocultured with BM stromal cells and soluble growth factors. 4–8 These stromal cells provide essential cytokines and other factors that support hematopoiesis and express adhesion molecules

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

) cells and a few CD8+ (T-cytotoxic) cells. A sparse number of macrophages was also evident in areas of inflammation. Activated Th cells can be subdivided into multiple categories (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg) on the basis of function and the cytokines they

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research