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, which may be predisposed to have tongues closer to the eyes than nonbrachycephalic dogs. 15 This study was designed to compare oral bacteria in brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs and their conjunctival flora and to evaluate the factors affecting

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Conjunctival swab specimens from healthy pigs were cultured to determine normal microbial population. Four commercial swine operations were selected for study. Pigs of 4 age groups were tested: nursing pigs, nursery pigs, feeder pigs, and sows. Swab specimens were taken from the conjunctival sac of each pig. Bacterial, fungal, and mycoplasmal growth was determined separately. Chlamydia sp was detected by use of an elisa. Bacteria were recovered from 98% of specimens evaluated. α-Streptococcus sp (89%) was the most commonly recovered organism, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (39%) and Staphylococcus sp (39%). Mycoplasma sp was not detected in any of the specimens. Chlamydia sp was identified in 28% of all specimens evaluated. These results are similar to reports of normal conjunctival flora in other domestic animals.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

applied corticosteroids on bacterial flora in dogs, and the effects of such administration on the bacterial flora of the dogs in the present study are not known. Changes in the conjunctival flora after cataract surgery are not likely to be attributable

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

effects on the aerobic bacterial and fungal conjunctival flora of normal Thoroughbred brood mares in Florida . Vet Ophthalmol 2003 ; 6 : 45 – 50 . 10.1046/j.1463-5224.2003.00265.x 19. Sacchi C , González HHL , Broggi LE , Fungal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

keratitis in the present study were S intermedius , β-hemolytic Streptococcus spp and P aeruginosa. These bacteria also predominate in the normal conjunctival flora in dogs. 27 We observed a significant increase in the frequency of isolation of P

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

diffusion method for 57 fungal isolates from the normal conjunctival flora of horses in Wisconsin was 69% overall and 100% for Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. 11 Differences in the in vitro efficacy of antifungals among studies may result from variability

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of clinically normal pigs . Am J Vet Res 1994 ; 55 : 949 – 951 . 46. Pinard CL Brightman AH Yeary TJ , et al. Normal conjunctival flora in the North American opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) and raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) . J Wildl Dis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, Sobaci G , et al. The antibacterial effect of topical anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival flora . Int Ophthalmol 1999 ; 23 : 117 – 120 . 10.1023/A:1026567912389 13. Pelosini L , Treffene S , Hollick EJ . Antibacterial activity of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

effects on the aerobic bacterial and fungal conjunctival flora of normal thoroughbred brood mares in Florida . Vet Ophthalmol 2003 ; 6 : 45 – 50 . 10.1046/j.1463-5224.2003.00265.x 2 Barton MH . Keratomycosis . Compend

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

– 86 . 10.1046/j.1463-5224.2000.00128.x 9. Andrew SE Nguyen A Jones GL , et al. Seasonal effects on the aerobic bacterial and fungal conjunctival flora of normal thoroughbred brood mares in Florida . Vet Ophthalmol 2003 ; 6 : 45 – 50

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research