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vascular congestion in all tissues examined. Anaerobic culture swabs from the affected forelimb skeletal muscle and heart isolated numerous bacteria identified as Clostridium chauvoei and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Clostridium difficile is a common nosocomial infection and has been known for many decades to cause CDAD in patients. A recent increase in the deaths among hospital patients has been attributed to the pathogenic strain NAP 1/027, which is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

bacteria to lyse tumor cells and initiate an inflammatory immune response to the tumor. For close to a century, Clostridium spp have been evaluated when administered alone and in combination with standard cytotoxic treatments. 2 Germination within tumors

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In adult horses, Clostridium difficile causes syndromes ranging from subclinical colonization to severe diarrhea and shock and is recognized as an important cause of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea in farm and hospital environments. 1 The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Enteric clostridiosis in equine neonates can result in life-threatening disease and has been associated with a high mortality rate in the early neonatal period. 1– 3 Clostridium perfringens is one of the most important enteric pathogens

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

  • Clostridium perfringens is the most common cause of clostridial enteric disease in domestic animals.

  • Many individuals have suggested that isolation of C perfringens type A from a horse with enteric disease is of little importance, even when other likely causes are ruled out; however, it appears that enterotoxigenic C perfringens type A may cause enteric disease in horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Clostridium difficile has been associated with diarrhea and colitis in horses and foals as well as in humans, rodents, rabbits, swine, and a number of other species. 1–3 In humans, the clinical state associated with colonization by C difficile

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

pathogens to the patients they interact with, and may play a role in community dissemination of health-care–associated pathogens. Health-care–associated pathogens to which dogs may be exposed during AAIs include MRSA, VRE, toxigenic strains of Clostridium

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine prevalence of clostridial enterotoxins in feces of horses with diarrhea and colic, and to determine whether an association exists between detection of clostridial enterotoxins in feces and development of diarrhea as a complication of colic.

Design

Prospective case series and case-control study.

Animals

174 horses with diarrhea, colic, or problems not related to the gastrointestinal tract.

Procedure

Horses were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: colic with diarrhea (group 1; n = 30); colic without diarrhea (group 2; 30); diarrhea without colic (group 3; 57); and control (group 4; 57). Feces were evaluated by use of ELISA to detect Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and C difficile toxin A (TOXA). Frequency of detection of CPE or TOXA in groups 1 and 3 was compared with that in groups 2 and 4, respectively.

Results

Prevalence of enteric clostridiosis in horses in group 3 was 25%. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was detected in 9 of 57 (16%), TOXA in 8 of 57 (14%), and both toxins in 3 of 57 (5%) fecal samples collected from these horses. Neither toxin was detected in feces of the age-matched horses in group 4. Clostridial enterotoxins were detected in feces of 7 of 60 (12%) horses with colic (groups 1 and 2); however, a significant association was not found between detection of enterotoxins in feces and development of diarrhea as a complication of colic.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Clostridia are important etiologic agents of diarrhea in horses. Additionally, changes in intestinal flora of horses with colic may allow for proliferation of clostridia and elaboration of enterotoxins regardless of whether diarrhea develops. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:358–361)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors for Clostridium piliforme infection in neonatal foals on a Thoroughbred breeding farm in California.

Design—Case-control and retrospective cohort studies.

Animals—322 neonatal Thoroughbred foals either born on the study farm or born elsewhere but traveled to the farm with their dam during the 1998, 1999, and 2000 breeding seasons.

Procedure—Mare and foal records from 1998, 1999, and 2000 were examined, using case-control design methods to determine variables associated with increased risk of C piliforme infection in foals. Important risk factors identified in the case-control study were then reevaluated by use of a retrospective cohort design, using data from all neonatal foals present on the farm during the 3-year study period.

Results—Foals born between March 13 and April 13 were 7.2 times as likely to develop C piliforme infection as were those born at any other time of the foaling season. Foals of nonresident (visiting) mares were 3.4 times as likely to develop disease as were foals born to mares that were permanent residents of the study farm. Foals of mares < 6 years of age were 2.9 times as likely to develop disease as were foals born to older mares.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this research can be used to better understand the epidemiologic factors of C piliforme infection in horses. High-risk foals can be closely monitored to aid in early diagnosis and treatment, resulting in the best possible clinical outcome for affected individuals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:785–790)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association