The definitive treatment for AGASACA often involves anal sacculectomy and extirpation of any metastatic iliosacral lymph nodes. 3 Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy are recommended adjunct treatments, and closed and open techniques for anal
of closed urine collection systems, which allow urine to be removed from the reservoir bag without disconnection from the urinary catheter, is standard practice in human medicine, 10–12 but in veterinary medicine, open urine collection systems, often
the TMJ extended (open mouth), followed by a neutrally positioned series (closed mouth) prior to and after IV administration of iodinated contrast medium. l The TMJs were apparently normal. No evidence of a mass or contrast agent–enhanced lesion was
Numerous closed and open reduction techniques have been described for the treatment and salvage of dogs with hip joint luxation. However, open reduction techniques may be beyond the financial reach of many owners and may be unnecessary if the hip
Subcutaneous closed suction drains are widely used in human and veterinary medicine for wound and postoperative surgical site management. 1 , 2 Closed suction drains allow evacuation of necrotic tissue, bacteria, inflammatory
infection. 1,2 Drains evacuate inflammatory mediators, foreign material, necrotic debris, and bacteria. Closed suction (active) drains are postulated to have a lower risk for nosocomial infection, compared with open (passive) drains; prevent skin irritation
of the forelimbs of a representative affected first-lactation cow in a closed commercial dairy herd.
Immediately after the gross necropsy was performed, but before diagnostic testing was complete, 3 authors (RTS, CVB, and DJW) discussed the
assess pulmonary hemodynamics and alveolar oxygenation in dogs anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane during OLV in a closed-thoracic experimental model. Our hypothesis was that, when anesthetized with isoflurane, dogs would have impaired arterial
strategies to manage this serious condition in dogs has been hampered by a lack of clinical trials designed to evaluate and compare the effects of various treatments. Closed root planing has been shown to help reduce periodontal pocket depth for pockets with
closed enterotomies in cadaveric jejunal specimens obtained from juvenile pigs. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal storage conditions for canine intestinal specimens prior to postenterotomy leakage pressure testing.