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anesthesia and may be economically favorable. Gentamicin and cidofovir are 2 intravitreal injections available for pharmacological CBA, and both drugs are known to be safe and effective in decreasing IOP by reducing aqueous humor production. 6 – 9 However

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

reported here was to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily application of 0.5% cidofovir solution in eyes of cats with experimentally induced primary ocular FHV-1 infection. Materials and Methods Study population —Twelve 6-month-old sexually intact

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective— To assess the effect of cidofovir on viability of feline corneal epithelial (FCE) cells, replication of feline herpesvirus (FHV)-1, and virus-induced cytopathic changes.

Sample Population—Healthy eyes from 14 recently euthanatized cats.

Procedure—Cidofovir at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.000005 mg/mL was added to primary cultures of FCE cells, and cytopathic changes and effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were determined during the subsequent 48 hours. Efficacy of cidofovir (0.02 and 0.05 mg/mL) to prevent in vitro infection of FCE cells with FHV-1 was determined during 72 hours of culture by assessing viral cytopathic effects and viral titers.

Results—Cidofovir at concentrations of 0.05, 0.005, and 0.0005 mg/mL significantly reduced mean viable cell counts, and cidofovir at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL significantly reduced the percentage viability of cultured FCE cells. Minimal cytopathic changes were observed at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.05 mg of cidofovir/mL. Cidofovir at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.02 mg/mL abrogated the cytopathic effects attributable to FHV-1 infection and reduced viral titers from ≥ 1014 TCID50/mL to ≤ 103.5 TCID50/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cidofovir in vitro was highly efficacious against FHV-1 infection of a primary culture of FCE cells but had cytostatic effects on cultured cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:217–222)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish the in vitro efficacy of 4 novel drugs (ie, ganciclovir, cidofovir, penciclovir, and foscarnet) against feline herpesvirus type-1 (FHV-1) and compare their antiviral efficacy with that of acyclovir and idoxuridine.

Sample Population—Cultured Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells and FHV-1 strain 727.

Procedure—For each drug, antiviral effect was estimated by use of conventional plaque-reduction assays, and inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50; drug concentration at which plaque numbers were reduced by 50% relative to the number of plaques for nontreated control wells) was calculated. To determine whether observed antiviral effects were related to alterations in the number or viability of CRFK cells, cytotoxicity assays were performed at 1, 2, and 10 times the median IC50 for each antiviral drug.

Results—Median IC50 for each drug was as follows: ganciclovir, 5.2µM; cidofovir, 11.0µM; penciclovir, 13.9µM; foscarnet, 232.9µM; idoxuridine, 4.3µM; and acyclovir, 57.9µM. Obvious changes in morphologic characteristics, confluence, or viability of CRFK cells were not observed at concentrations up to and including 2 times the IC50 for each drug.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro efficacy of idoxuridine and ganciclovir against FHV-1 was approximately equivalent and about twice that of cidofovir and penciclovir. Foscarnet appeared to be comparatively ineffective. Given the reasonable clinical efficacy of idoxuridine in cats infected with FHV-1, clinical trials of ganciclovir, cidofovir, and penciclovir or their prodrug forms appear to be warranted. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:399–403)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

rabbits with experimentally induced HSV-1 keratitis to determine the effects of ophthalmic preparations of 1% trifluridine (9 applications daily for 3 days, then 4 applications daily for 4 days), 1% cidofovir (2 applications daily for 7 days), 0

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

treatment of dogs with ocular CHV-1 infections include idoxuridine, trifluridine, and cidofovir ophthalmic solutions. 31,32 Clinically, 0.15% ganciclovir ophthalmic gel has been successfully used to treat a dog with CHV-1 dendritic ulcerative keratitis. a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

poor response to treatment may be the result of inadequate owner compliance for the frequency of application needed to enable these drugs to be effective. 13 Cidofovir, a nucleoside monophosphate analogue of cytosine, has been effective against FHV-1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

vivo studies to justify their use in clinical patients. 1,8 Cidofovir is one of the few nucleoside analogs that has been evaluated in cats under controlled experimental conditions. In cats, cidofovir has a long half-life and persists in ocular tissues

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

have studied the in vitro activity of penciclovir against FHV-1. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of penciclovir against FHV-1 was first determined in vitro to be 13.9μM (3.5 μg/mL). 2 This is similar to that of idoxuridine and cidofovir

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

zoster virus). 16 The IC 50 of penciclovir was determined to be 13.9μM (3.5 μg/mL) when used against FHV-1 in in vitro cultures. 13 This is similar to that of idoxuridine and cidofovir, which are clinically useful when applied topically for the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research