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Introduction Chylothorax can be induced by a wide variety of conditions including tricuspid insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, obstruction of the cranial vena cava with thrombus or a tumor thrombus from a mediastinal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Chylothorax is characterized by the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. Causes of chylothorax include cardiac diseases, cranial mediastinal masses, heartworm disease, fungal granulomas, thrombosis of the cranial vena cava, and congenital

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction In cats, chylothorax is caused by an abnormal flow or pressure in the thoracic duct (TD) and its branches, leading to chylous accumulation in the thoracic cavity. 1 Multiple possible etiologies, including cardiomyopathy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A 10-year-old spayed female pit bull–type dog weighing 20.7 kg (45.5 lb) was referred for evaluation of chylothorax following a 1-week history of increasing tachypnea. Approximately 1,700 mL of grossly turbid fluid had been removed from the thorax

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

into the cranial vena cava. 1,2 Chylothorax, the accumulation of chyle within the pleural space, is rarely caused by trauma and is more often caused by impeded lymphatic drainage or in association with idiopathic lymphangiectasia. Traumatic causes of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Idiopathic chylothorax in dogs is a complex disorder that causes the accumulation of chyle within the pleural space, resulting in respiratory distress and, in some cases, restrictive pleuritis. Nonidiopathic cases can be associated with a variety

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation (TDL) and pericardiectomy are well established as minimally invasive alternatives to open surgery in dogs with chylothorax. 1 – 4 A recent multi-institutional study 3 reported a 95

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Case records of 37 cats with chylothorax examined at 2 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. Dyspnea and coughing were the most common abnormalities noticed by the owners, and most cats were dyspneic on initial examination. There was no statistically significant difference in the gender distribution of cats studied when compared with reference populations; however, purebred cats appeared to be overrepresented in the study population. Four of the cats had unilateral pleural effusion (2 left side, 2 right side) and 9 cats had effusions that were primarily, but not exclusively, on the right side. Surgery was performed on 20 cats. Fifteen cats underwent thoracic duct or cisterna chyli ligation; 20% had complete resolution of pleural fluid. There was no significant difference in the survival rate of cats that underwent thoracic duct ligation and those that were treated by other means. Six cats had mesenteric lymphangiography performed; 2 cats had normal results, and the remainder had various degrees of thoracic lymphangiectasia. Two cats in which pleuroperitoneal shunts were placed and 2 of 3 cats that underwent pleurodesis were euthanatized or died after surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Mesenteric lymphangiography and thoracic duct ligation were performed on 19 cats with chylothorax between 1987 to 1992. Chylothorax was diagnosed on the basis of detection of chylomicrons in the pleural effusion or determination of a cholesterol concentration:triglyceride concentration ratio of < 1 in the pleural fluid. Preoperative medical treatment consisted of thoracentesis (19 of 19 cats) and feeding a fat-restricted diet (14 of 19 cats). Positive-contrast mesenteric lymphangiography was performed before thoracic duct ligation to identify an underlying cause for the effusion. Lymphangiectasia was diagnosed by use of radiography in 17 cats, none of which had evidence of a thoracic duct rupture. Thoracic duct ligation was performed via an incision made through the left 10th intercostal space. Lymphangiography was repeated immediately after ligation of the thoracic duct to document occlusion of all branches.

Follow-up monitoring was done for 12 to 47 months (median, 28 months) and consisted of physical examination, evaluation for clinical signs related to pleural effusion, and thoracic radiography. Ten of 19 (53%) cats had complete resolution of pleural effusion. Nonchylous effusion, localized in the right hemithorax, was detected in 1 cat 2 months after thoracic duct ligation, but resolved after thoracotomy, breakdown of thoracic adhesions, and expansion of the right cranial lung lobe. Chylous effusion resolved 3 to 7 days (mean, 5.4 days) after surgery in the 10 cats that survived > 12 months after surgery. Four cats died between 2 and 13 days after thoracic duct ligation, but pleural effusion had resolved in 3 of these 4 cats at the time of death. Five cats were euthanatized 8 to 36 days after surgery because of persistent chylous effusion after thoracic duct ligation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association