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Considerable interest has been expressed in the relationships between dietary fat intake and plasma lipids. This is largely attributable to the role that dietary fats play in modulating plasma cholesterol concentrations and determining the risk

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the preparturition period to predict the development of RP in dairy cows. In 1 study, 9 a low serum concentration of cholesterol and high concentration of FAs in the preparturition period were identified in cows that subsequently developed RP. Other

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, and gallbladder motility in dogs. Bile acids play a key role in cholesterol and triglyceride homoeostasis. When hepatic cellular cholesterol concentrations are high, 2 primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) are synthesized from

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Hypercholesterolemia and some lipoprotein abnormalities have been found to be associated with atherosclerosis in epidemiological studies in various species of parrots. 2 , 5 In addition, plasma cholesterol concentration is also strongly associated with cholesterol

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

loosely arranged fibrovascular tissue with numerous empty clefts, characteristic for cholesterol crystals ( Figure 3 ) was observed. Cholesterol crystals, which were commonly surrounded by microhemorrhage and macrophages, comprising multinucleated giant

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In their recent study examining the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility, Kakimoto et al 1 fed healthy, castrated male Beagles a high-fat–high-cholesterol (8%) diet and a low-fat diet and found that

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Epidemiologic relations were evaluated between plasma concentrations of nutrients and cardiovascular diseases. A total of 220 cats were assessed: 144 cats with noninduced acquired heart disease and 76 clinically normal cats. Plasma was assayed for taurine, α-tocopherol, selenium, retinol, and total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Cardiovascular disease groups included dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 53), left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 28), hyperthyroidism (n = 11), and uncertain classification (n = 52).

In cats with dilated cardiomyopathy, mean plasma taurine concentration was the lowest of that in cats of any group, being only 38% of the value in healthy cats; females had less than half the mean value of males. Tocopherol concentration was 20% lower than normal, and retinol concentration was 40% higher than normal. Total cholesterol concentration was 36% lower than normal. Triglycerides concentration was higher in these cats than in any other group — twice the value recorded in healthy cats and 67% higher than that in hyperthyroid cats.

In cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, almost 15% had mean plasma taurine concentration < 30 μmol/L. Retinol concentration was 15% higher, and triglycerides concentration was 54% higher than normal. Approximately 27% of hyperthyroid cats had mildly decreased plasma taurine concentration. Hyperthyroid cats had the lowest tocopherol and cholesterol values; both were at least 30% lower than normal. Retinol concentration was 30% higher than normal.

Approximately 14% of cats with uncertain classification had mildly decreased plasma taurine concentration. Plasma retinol and triglycerides concentrations were higher than normal in 25 and 38% of these cats, respectively.

Plasma selenium concentration, compared between healthy cats and cats with cardiac disease, was not significantly different. This observation may not be meaningful, however, in light of the limited number of cats in which selenium was assessed.

Although significant correlation was not observed between plasma taurine and plasma retinol, tocopherol, or cholesterol concentrations in cats with cardiac disease, plasma tocopherol and cholesterol values were highly associated (P < 0.01). Also, the molar ratio of cholesterol to tocopherol was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in cats with dilated cardiomyopathy, compared with healthy cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Body condition scoring (using a 5-point scale with quarter-point divisions) was performed on 66 Holstein dairy cows that began their second or later lactation in August, September, or October 1988. Body condition was scored, beginning on postpartum day 4(± 1) and subsequently at postpartum days (± 1) 18, 32, 46, 60, 73, and 87. Blood samples were obtained on the same dates. Kilograms of milk produced per cow was measured daily. Body condition score and changes in body condition score were evaluated in relation to daily milk production, cumulative 80- day milk yield, and serum urea nitrogen and cholesterol concentrations.

Average daily milk production during week 1 was indicative of cumulative 80-day production, but not of 305- day milk yields. Cows that calved with body condition score ≥ 3.50 did not differ in average daily milk production, cumulative 80-day milk yield, or 305-day milk yield, compared with cows that calved with body condition score < 3.50. Cows that calved with body condition score ≥ 3.50 lost more condition than did cows that calved with body condition score < 3.50. Body condition score at calving and amount of body condition loss interacted with the rate of change in daily milk production.

Serum urea nitrogen concentration did not differ for cows grouped by cumulative 80-day milk production or for cows grouped by amount of condition loss. Serum cholesterol values were higher than previously reported values and increased directly with milk production. Serum cholesterol values were inversely related to condition loss, but changes in cholesterol concentration were not related to condition loss.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Body condition scoring (using a 5-point scale with quarterpoint divisions) was performed on 66 Holstein dairy cows that began their second or later lactation in August, September, or October 1988. Cows’ body condition was scored beginning on postpartum day 4 (± 1) and subsequently at postpartum days (± 1) 18, 32, 46, 60, 73 and 87. Blood samples were obtained on the same dates. Reproductive health examinations were conducted by 1 of 2 veterinarians beginning at postpartum day 21. Reproductive performance was evaluated in relation to body condition score and serum urea nitrogen and cholesterol concentrations.

Number of days to first recorded signs of estrus and first breeding were not related to body condition score at calving, amount of condition loss, cumulative 80-day milk yield, or 305-day fat corrected milk yield. Cows that calved with body condition score ≥ 3.50 required more days to conceive. Cows losing > 0.75 points of condition had longer days of conception. Body condition score at calving and amount of condition lost were not related to services per conception or diagnosis of follicular cyst.

Cumulative 80-day milk yield was not related to days to conception or services per conception. Cows that produced = the mean 305-day milk yield required more services and had longer days to conception than cows that produced < the mean 305-day milk yield. Cows with diagnosis of ovarian follicular cysts had greater cumulative 80- and 305-day milk yields than did cows that were not diagnosed with follicular cysts.

Cows conceiving with ≤ 2 services did not differ in average daily milk production, body condition score, or serum urea nitrogen concentration from cows conceiving with > 2 services, but cows that conceived with ≤ 2 services had higher serum cholesterol values than did cows requiring more services.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Atherosclerosis is a disease of elastic and muscular arteries characterized by vascular inflammation and buildup of cholesterol, fibrin, calcium, and cellular waste products within the intima of the vessel wall. The buildup results in plaque

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association