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veterinary medicine; however, the lack of pharmacokinetic data in turtles often makes it challenging to evaluate potential clinical efficacy despite the availability of sensitivity results. 5 , 6 Ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is often used

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the exploration of medications applied topically or via immersion, but few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed to demonstrate that medications applied topically will reach effective plasma concentrations in amphibians. 3 Ceftazidime is a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin. It is bactericidal and acts by means of binding to penicillin-binding proteins of gram-negative bacteria to inhibit the cross-linking of peptidoglycan, thereby interfering with cell wall synthesis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime following subcutaneous administration and continuous IV infusion to healthy dogs and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftazidime for clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—MIC of ceftazidime for 101 clinical isolates of P aeruginosa was determined in vitro. Serum concentrations of ceftazidime were determined following subcutaneous administration of ceftazidime (30 mg/kg of body weight) to 5 dogs and continuous IV infusion of ceftazidime (loading dose, 4.4 mg/kg; infusion rate, 4.1 mg/kg/h) for 36 hours to 5 dogs.

Results—The MIC of ceftazidime for P aeruginosa was ≤ 8 µg/ml; all isolates were considered susceptible. Following SC administration of ceftazidime, mean β disappearance half-life was 0.8 hours, and mean serum ceftazidime concentration exceeded the MIC for P aeruginosa for only 4.3 hours. Two dogs had gastrointestinal tract effects. Mean serum ceftazidime concentration exceeded 16 µg/ml during continuous IV infusion. None of the dogs developed adverse effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ceftazidime subcutaneously (30 mg/kg, q 4 h) or as a constant IV infusion (loading dose, 4.4 mg/kg; rate, 4.1 mg/kg/h) would maintain serum ceftazidime concentrations above the MIC determined for 101 clinical isolates of P aeruginosa. Use of these dosages may be appropriate for treatment of dogs with infections caused by P aeruginosa. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1204–1208)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

33 0 Cefotaxime 12 25 58 17 — — — — Cefotetan 10 40 50 10 — — — — Cefpodoxime 22 59 36 5 1 0 0 100 Ceftazidime 42 81 17 2 11 0 100 0 Ceftiofur 24 71

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urine of women with cystitis or pyelonephritis and from fecal samples from dogs and healthy humans.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—Escherichia coli isolates from 82 women with cystitis, 170 women with pyelonephritis, 45 dogs, and 76 healthy human volunteers.

Procedure—Susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was determined by means of disk diffusion testing as specified by the NCCLS.

Results—Overall, the 4 most common antimicrobial resistance patterns were resistance to ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (n = 45 [12% of all isolates]); ampicillin alone (33 [9%]); ampicillin and sulfisoxazole (29 [8%]); and sulfisoxazole alone (14 [4%]). None of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, or piperacillin-tazobactam. Resistance was significantly more common and extensive among isolates from women with cystitis or pyelonephritis than among isolates from healthy humans or dogs. Resistance was least common among isolates from dogs. The only resistance phenotype that was more common among canine isolates than human isolates was resistance to sulfisoxazole alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs are unlikely to be an important external reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant E coli strains causing infections in humans. On the contrary, the data suggest that dogs conceivably could acquire resistant E coli strains from humans. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:368–373)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. See page 411 Pharmacokinetics and distribution of ceftazidime to milk after IV and IM administration to lactating female dromedary camels Results of a new study suggest that ceftazidime may be a useful treatment for female camels with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

resulting from interactions with live prey. Evaluation of radiographs revealed no evidence of pulmonary disease; however, interpretation of the radiographic appearance of skull bones was inconclusive. Administration of ceftazidime (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb], IM

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

reptile medicine is ceftazidime, which is typically prescribed at a dosing interval of 72 hours. 9,10 This antimicrobial is effective against many bacterial pathogens in reptile species, and owners can be taught to administer the medication at home

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Streptococcus spp NG Ampicillin: 1 Ceftazidime: 3 AZM 1 : 36 ENO 1 : 36 Y 335 66 Mand NG NS Pen-G: 6 ENO: 51 MTR: 51 Y 354 38 Mand Streptococcus intermedius NG Ceftazidime: 5 AZM: 64 Y 375 2 Mand NG

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association