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caudal duplication. Shown here are the 2 vulvas and 2 tails (A) and rectovestibular fistula on the left side (B). Diagnostic Findings and Interpretation Pre- and postcontrast CT (Aquilion 64; Toshiba Corp) of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ultrasonography revealed turbulent blood flow in the caudal vena cava without vascular invasion. The mass was considered consistent with a left adrenal gland mass. The right adrenal gland was 0.3 cm in height and considered normal in size. The left kidney measured

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

border of the cardiac silhouette, vascular margins (including the caudal vena cava), and diaphragm. Compared with findings for cat 1, the pulmonary pattern for cats 2 and 3 had a patchier appearance, with the more prominent changes located within the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Diagnosis and Case Summary Morphologic diagnosis: aortic chondrosarcoma. Case summary: primary aortic chondrosarcoma affecting cranial and caudal (abdominal) portions of the aorta in a dog with hypertension. Comments Chondrosarcoma (CSA) is the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of a line connecting the tibial tuberosity to the caudal margin of the medial tibial condyle, was 1.1 for the right tibia and 0.74 for the left tibia. Mild tibial valgus of 5°, which was calculated as the angle formed between the proximal and distal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

retrocaval ureter, is a condition where the ureter passes dorsal to the vena cava. It results from a developmental anomaly of the inferior vena cava (caudal vena cava in nonhuman mammals) in relation to the ureter. 1,2 The right caudal cardinal vein from the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

knowledge of the normal appearance of the organ. The purpose of the study reported here was to characterize ultrasonographically the localization, visible extent (ie, measurement of selected dimensions), and appearance of the liver, caudal vena cava, portal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Type I CM in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by caudal herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. 1–6 In addition, type I CM in humans is an important cause of syringomyelia and frequently

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

made over the cranial and caudal aspect of the cranial nuchal bursa at the left side of the neck to serve as ipsilateral portals for the arthroscope and instrumentation, respectively. A 4-mm, 30° forward-viewing arthroscope was inserted into the bursa

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy is a common disease of the cervical vertebrae in large-breed dogs that leads to various neurologic clinical signs caused by static and dynamic compression of the spinal cord. 1,2 Most of the so-called disk

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research