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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine quality-of-life changes in owners of dogs undergoing mitral valve repair for myxomatous mitral valve disease, up to 12 months postoperatively.

SAMPLE

Owners of 26 dogs undergoing mitral valve repair at a single UK veterinary referral hospital.

METHODS

Dogs underwent mitral valve repair under cardiopulmonary bypass as previously described. Owner quality of life was assessed by self-completion of a previously validated questionnaire preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively.

RESULTS

There was a statistically significant improvement in quality-of-life scores from preoperatively up to 3 months postoperatively and a statistically significant improvement in individual question scores up to 6 months postoperatively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that owner quality of life is significantly improved following surgical repair of their pet’s myxomatous mitral valve disease, and this improvement continues beyond the immediate postoperative period. These results may be useful when counseling owners of surgical candidates and is another useful outcome measure.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the in vitro axial extraction forces necessary to remove pins and to evaluate mechanical trauma resulting from pin insertion, using various types of pins and insertion techniques.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Subjects

Femurs of cadavers of dogs.

Procedure

Pins were inserted as follows: 1 non-threaded pin without drilling of a pilot hole, 1 enhanced threaded pin with drilling of a pilot hole, and 1 enhanced threaded pin without drilling of a pilot hole. After pin insertion, mechanical damage and proper pin insertion was determined by means of radiography. Axial extraction forces were determined for all pins, using a universal testing machine. Mechanical damage was evaluated in 12 additional femurs. After pin insertion, all pins were removed from the bone by use of a low-speed power drill. Samples were sectioned, processed, and evaluated by use of dissecting and scanning electron microscopy.

Results

Using radiography, a significant difference was detected in the number of periosteal trans-cortex fractures between the enhanced threaded and non-threaded pins. Axial extraction force was not significantly different between the enhanced threaded pins, regardless of insertion technique; however, the axial extraction force was significantly greater for enhanced threaded pins, compared with that for nonthreaded pins. Microfractures only were detected on the periosteum of the trans-cortex of enhanced threaded pins by use of scanning electron microscopy.

Clinical Implications

We cannot recommend a particular insertion technique to decrease mechanical trauma to the bone and to increase axial extraction force needed for removal of enhanced threaded pins from the femur of dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:883–887)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eight dogs were determined to be orthopedically normal on the basis of prelavage physical examination, stifle radiography, synovial fluid analysis, and force plate analysis (peak vertical force normalized for body weight, and time on the force plate). Each dog had 1 stifle randomly assigned to be lavaged with 100 ml of a commercially available 0.05% (w/v) chlorhexidine diacetate solution, and the contralateral stifle was lavaged with lactated Ringer’s solution.

Difference was not detected between the chlorhexidine diacetate and lactated Ringer’s solution-treated joints, with regard to results of synovial fluid analysis and clinical lameness evaluations on days 4 and 8 after lavage. Chlorhexidine diacetate caused a more intense synovitis than did lactated Ringer’s solution, as determined by histologic evaluation of synovial membrane specimens after necropsy on day 8; however, a difference in the intensity of toluidine blue staining of articular cartilage was not found between treatments. Chlorhexidine diacetate, as a 0.05% (w/v) solution, cannot be recommended as a joint lavage fluid until the duration of inflammatory changes in the synovial membrane are determined or until the chemical constituents of chlorhexidine diacetate causing the synovitis can be identified and removed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Transcutaneous oxygen (PO2-TC) monitoring is commonly used in human medicine for evaluating skin viability. The application of transcutaneous monitoring for evaluating skin viability in dogs was investigated.

The changes in PO2-TC values were measured from 16 avascular skin flaps created along the lateral hemithoraces of 4 dogs. Transcutaneous oxygen values were serially recorded from the vascular base and avascular apex of each flap for 12 hours after surgery. A single transcutaneous measurement was obtained from each flap base and apex 24 hours after surgery. Serial arterial blood gas analyses were obtained to compare central oxygen values with PO2-TC values. Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens were harvested from the base and apex of each flap 24 hours after surgery. The flaps were observed for 4 days and then excised for histologic examination. A subjective grading scale was used to assess histologic changes.

Throughout the 12-hour period and at 24 hours, a statistically significant difference was found between the PO2-TC values for apices and bases of the flaps. The mean PO2-TC for all bases was 90.9 mm of Hg ± 3.3 SEM, and the mean PO2-TC for all apices was 21.2 mm of Hg ± 1.8 SEM. The mean regional perfusion index (apex PO2-TC/base PO2-TC) was 0.23 ± 0.02. The subjective numbers assigned to the biopsy specimens were statistically evaluated by using a paired Student's t test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant difference was found between the numbers for the collective bases and apices with both tests. A statistically significant difference was found between the numbers for the apex biopsy specimens taken 24 hours after creation of the skin flap and those taken when the flap was excised, whereas no difference was found between the numbers for the base biopsy specimens. On the basis of our findings, PO2-tc monitoring is a useful technique for assessing skin viability in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Effects of temperature and storage time on canine bone-transfixation pin specimens were tested by comparing pin pull-out forces. A total of 16 femurs from 8 mature dogs were tested. Five nonthreaded Steinmann pins were placed through both cortices in the diaphysis of each femur. The femurs were then sectioned transversely between each pin, with a bonepin specimen placed evenly into each of 5 groups prior to biomechanical testing. Four bone-pin specimen groups were stored at −20 or −70 C for 14 or 28 days, while 1 specimen group was immediately tested. Pull-out forces for frozen groups were compared with pull-out forces for the fresh group.

Using two-way anova, there was no statistical difference in mean axial-extraction forces among bonepin specimens in any of the tested groups. It is concluded that acute pin pull-out forces are not significantly affected by freezing temperature or time. However, specimens stored at −20 C for as few as 14 days had a trend for increased pull-out forces, compared with freshly harvested specimens. Therefore, the authors recommend storage of bone-pin specimens at −70 C when possible.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the histologic pattern and biomechanical properties of adhesions caused by chromic catgut and polypropylene sutures, using an enteropexy model.

Design

Enteropexies were created in dogs, using chromic catgut and polypropylene suture. The adhesions associated with the enteropexies were examined histologically and mechanically.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs weighing 16 to 20 kg.

Procedure

72 enteropexies were created between the jejunum and abdominal wall. 36 sites were sutured with chromic catgut, and 36 were sutured with polypropylene. 3 dogs were euthanatized after 1 week. The remaining dogs were euthanatized after 1 month. Samples of the enteropexy sites were obtained for histologic examination. The remaining sites were mechanically distracted until failure of the enteropexy site or adjacent tissue occurred.

Results

Histologic examination of the enteropexy sites did not reveal substantial differences in the degree of inflammation between the 2 suture types at 1 week or 1 month. The degree of inflammation decreased and the maturity of fibrous tissue formed at the enteropexy sites increased for all specimens over time. No statistically significant difference in breaking strength was observed between suture types at 1 week or 1 month.

Conclusion

In dogs, the formation and strength of intentionally created abdominal adhesions are not increased by use of chromic catgut.

Clinical Relevance

Selection of chromic catgut suture for use in surgical procedures where adhesions are desired is unwarranted. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:943–947)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Transcutaneous oxygen monitoring is commonly used in human beings to assess skin viability. Little attention has been directed toward the use of transcutenaous carbon dioxide (PCO2-TC ) monitoring for the same purpose. The application of PCO2-TC monitoring for evaluating skin viability in dogs was investigated.

The changes in PCO2-TC and local power reference (LPR) values were measured from 16 skin flaps created along the lateral hemithoraces of 4 dogs. Transcutaneous PPCO2 and LPR values were serially recorded from the base and apex of each flap for 12 hours. A single measurement was obtained from each flap base and apex 24 hours after surgery. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained to compare central PCO2 values with peripheral skin PCO2 values. The flaps were observed for 4 days and then harvested for histologic examination. Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens were obtained 24 hours after surgery and when the flaps were harvested to evaluate the viability of the apex and base of the flaps. A subjective grade was assigned to all skin biopsy specimens during histologic examination.

For all measurements, a significant difference was found between the PCO2-TC values for apices and bases of the flaps. The mean PCO2-TC for all bases was 52.66 mm of Hg ± 2.24 (SEM), and the mean PCO2-TC for all apices was 106.4 mm of Hg ± 2.44. The regional carbon dioxide index (apex PCO2-TC /base PCO2-TC ) was 2.02.

A significant difference was not found between the LPR values for bases and apices. The mean lpr for all bases was 253.23 mW ± 4.06, and the mean LPR for all apices was 243.53 mW ± 4.49.

A signficant difference was found between the histologic grades assigned to the collective bases and apices 4 days after creation of the flaps. A difference was not found between the collective bases and apices 24 hours after flap creation. On the basis of our findings, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring is a useful method of evaluating skin viability in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether pretreatment total and ionized blood magnesium concentrations were associated with outcome for dogs with parvoviral enteritis and whether ionized magnesium concentration was related to total magnesium concentration or other laboratory values.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Animals

61 healthy dogs and 72 dogs with parvoviral enteritis.

Procedure

Total, ionized, and pH-normalized ionized magnesium concentrations, ionized and pH-normalized ionized calcium concentrations, pH, sodium and potassium concentrations, and Hct were measured prior to treatment. χ2 Analyses were used to test for associations between outcome and age and between outcome and treatment with antiendotoxin antibody. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine whether ionized magnesium concentration was linearly associated with other laboratory values.

Results

Total and ionized magnesium concentrations were not significantly different between healthy dogs and dogs with parvoviral enteritis or between dogs surviving and those not surviving parvoviral enteritis. The only laboratory value strongly correlated with ionized magnesium concentration was pH-normalized ionized magnesium concentration. Of the factors tested, none were significantly associated with outcome, except that dogs 16 weeks old or less treated with antiendotoxin antibody were significantly more likely to die than were dogs 16 weeks old or less that were not treated with antiendotoxin antibody.

Clinical Implications

Total and ionized blood magnesium concentrations cannot be used to consistently predict outcome for dogs with parvoviral enteritis. Antiendotoxin antibody should be used with caution in dogs 16 weeks old or less. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1398–1401)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

for women in cardiothoracic surgery through allyship and targeted initiatives . Ann Thorac Surg . 2022 ; 113 ( 5 ): 1676 – 1683 . doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.06.064 34332996 20. Patel VM , Warren O , Humphris P , What does leadership

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

creatinine predict prognosis in patients after cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective cohort study . J Am Soc Nephrol 2004 ; 15 : 1597 – 1605 . 10.1097/01.ASN.0000130340.93930.DD 22. Smith GL Vaccarino V Kosiborod M , et al . Worsening renal

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association