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contributing to CHF's poor prognosis. 1 Cardiac cachexia affects both humans and dogs with CHF and is independently associated with morbidity and mortality. 1 – 4 Prevalence rates of 48% to 69% have been reported for dogs with cardiac disease, with a higher

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

supplementation. 32 Dogs in heart failure supplemented with fish oil as a source of n3 PUFAs showed a reduction in inflammatory mediators as well as improvement in cardiac cachexia, but no improvement in survival. 33 Dogs with moderate to severe MMVD (stages B2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Cardiac cachexia: a systematic overview . Pharmacol Ther 2009 ; 121 : 227 – 252 . 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2008.09.009 5. Evans WJ Morley JE Argiles J , et al. Cachexia: a new definition . Clin Nutr 2008 ; 27 : 793 – 799 . 10.1016/j.clnu.2008

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

importance for cardiac cachexia . Circulation 1997 ; 96 : 526 – 534 . 10.1161/01.CIR.96.2.526 37. Anker SD Volterrani M Pflaum CD , et al. Acquired growth hormone resistance in patients with chronic heart failure: implications for therapy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

examination, and muscle condition scoring would be a valuable addition. Cardiac cachexia (muscle loss) occurs early in patients with CHF and should be detected at its mildest stages, when interventions are more likely to be successful. 25 Muscle condition

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

nutritional status may occur subsequent to the onset of cardiac disease, as occurs with the retention of sodium, chloride, and water in animals with CHF. Inappetance and cardiac cachexia are also common in animals with CHF. 7-9 A number of dietary

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

peripheral neuropathy or poor oxygenation, or it may not have been related to cardiac disease at all. Many of the rabbits with cardiovascular disease in the present study had a low body condition (median score, 4/9). In dogs, weight loss or cardiac cachexia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association