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Introduction Capillary refill time (CRT) is defined as the time needed for a distal capillary bed to return to its baseline color after applying enough pressure to cause blanching. 1 CRT is a noninvasive, easy-to-use clinical test used to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Supported by Nestlé Purina Research. The authors thank Patricia Kaynaroglu and Vicki Berkowitz for technical assistance. ABBREVIATIONS BW Body weight CRT Capillary refill time PVWDC Penn Vet Working Dog Center SkTT Skin tent time

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

poor peripheral perfusion. 1 In cats, physical examination findings considered to be consistent with hypoperfusion include pale mucous membranes, prolonged capillary refill time, tachycardia or bradycardia, hypothermia, and poor or absent peripheral

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

pale and mildly icteric, with a capillary refill time ≥ 2 seconds. Mild icterus of the skin was also noted. The dog had mild tachypnea, and cardiothoracic auscultation revealed a soft, generalized systolic murmur. Abdominal palpation elicited signs of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, respiratory rate, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, hydration status evaluated by skin tenting and scored as present or absent, muscle tremor, and abdominal sounds [borborygmi] at the 4 quadrants of the abdomen) and other findings, including

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Palpate abdomen for organomegaly 24 100 * 2 Body weight 24 100 * 2 Body condition score 25 100 2 Mucous membrane color 24 100 * 2 Capillary refill time 25 100 2 General assessment 24 96 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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capillary refill time (3 seconds), weak femoral pulses, mild periodontal disease, and tachycardia (heart rate, 260 beats/min). Analysis of the ECG rhythm strip revealed sustained ventricular tachycardia (heart rate, 265 beats/min) with a pattern of the QRS

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

capillary refill time (3 seconds; reference limit, ≤ 2 seconds), and bilaterally absent menace response. Compared with hematologic results obtained approximately 19 hours earlier, goat 2 had worsening mild hypernatremia and respiratory alkalosis, resolution

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

prove informative and useful. ABBREVIATIONS CRT Capillary refill time LRS Lactated Ringer's solution LSM Least squares mean MFI Microcirculatory flow index P etco 2 End-tidal partial pressure of CO 2 Sp o 2 Oxygen saturation as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly and highly fatal disease in cats that is caused by the protozoan Cytauxzoon felis, which may be transmitted by Ixodid ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) from parasitemic bobcats (Lynx rufus). During an 8-year period, cytauxzoonosis was diagnosed in 8 cats, 7 cats within 14 months. Risk factors for these cats were warm weather, access to a wooded environment, and exposure to ticks. The most consistent clinical signs were acute lethargy, anorexia, decreased response to external stimuli (depression), icterus, dehydration, and capillary refill time > 2 seconds. Pertinent clinicopathologic findings were normocytic normochromic anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia; high serum concentrations of total bilirubin and glucose, low serum concentrations of albumin and potassium, high serum alanine transaminase activity; and, bilirubinuria. Confirmation of cytauxzoonosis was made by cytologic or histologic identification of the C felis organism. Splenic, lymph node, and bone marrow aspirates can provide an antemortem diagnosis when the number of parasitized erythrocytes is low on blood smears. Supportive treatment of 6 cats was temporarily palliative in some, but all 8 cats either died (3) or were euthanatized (5) when they became moribund. Survival time from observed onset of illness to death was < 5 days. Necropsy of 4 cats revealed predominately pulmonary involvement with venous congestion. Histologic examination revealed venous occlusion by parasitized mononuclear phagocytes in all tissue specimens, but only minimal inflammatory infiltrates.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association