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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Assess the accuracy of predicted daily energy requirement (pDER) reported by a triaxial accelerometer and activity monitor for dogs (FitBark 2; FitBark Inc) and determine whether the activity monitor accurately estimates the observed daily energy requirement (oDER). We hypothesized that the activity monitor would accurately estimate oDER in dogs and meet standards established for human devices.

ANIMALS

23 dogs between the ages of 1 and 10 years and variable sex, breed, and body weight were enrolled from May 5, 2021, through July 23, 2021.

METHODS

Dogs were weighed before and after the study period to ensure stable body weights. Owners recorded their dogs’ daily caloric intake for the entire 28-day study period while the device monitored physical activity and calculated pDER. oDER was defined as the reported caloric intake required to maintain a stable body weight over a 28-day period. pDER and oDER were compared using Bland-Altman graphs, Passing-Bablock analysis, and Lin’s Concordance correlation analysis. P ≤ .05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

23 apparently healthy dogs completed the study. There was no significant difference between starting body weights and ending body weights (P= .5). The activity monitor overpredicted 28-day pDER compared to 28-day oDER in the majority (18/23, 78.3%) of dogs. Based on Bland-Altman analysis, Passing-Bablok regression, and Lin’s concordance correlation analysis, there was poor agreement between the pDER and oDER.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The activity monitors consistently reported inaccurate pDER compared to oDER. Its usability for estimating pDER is of limited clinical and research utility based on the results of this study.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement on gastric emptying in clinically normal cats.

Animals

8 healthy adult 3- to 5-year-old cats.

Procedure

Cats were accommodated to the diet for 2 weeks prior to scintigraphy. Caloric needs were divided into 3 feedings/d. Food was withheld for 24 hours after tube placement, then was fed as a third of the caloric needs on day 1, two-thirds on day 2, and full caloric requirements thereafter. Gastric emptying was measured via nuclear scintigraphy. Labeled meals contained 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 99mTc-labeled disofenin. Sixty-second ventral scintigraphic images were acquired immediately, every 20 minutes for the first hour, then every 30 minutes for 4 hours after feeding. Each cat was evaluated 3 times prior to PEG tube placement. Cats were anesthetized, and 16-F mushroom-tipped Pezzar gastrostomy tubes were placed, using a video endoscope. Scintigraphy was repeated on days 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, and 21 after PEG tube placement.

Results

Gastric emptying was faster with a PEG tube in place. Percentage of retained gastric activity was significantly lower after PEG for 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes versus time before PEG tube placement.

Conclusion

Placement of a PEG tube does not delay gastric emptying in clinically normal cats.

Clinical Relevance

Gastric retention of food, vomiting, and aspiration pneumonia after PEG tube placement may not be related to delayed gastric emptying. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1414–1416)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To use indirect calorimetry to compare heat production between gonadectomized and sexually intact male and female cats.

Design

Male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) kittens were gonadectomized at 7 weeks or 7 months of age, or left sexually intact. Body heat production was measured by indirect calorimetry in all cats at 12, 18, and 24 months of age.

Animals

18 male and 18 female clinically normal domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure

Heat production was measured, using an open-circuit, respiratory, indirect calorimeter. All cats underwent calorimetry at 12, 18, and 24 months of age. The heat coefficient, a measure of resting metabolic rate, was calculated for each cat at each test; heat coefficient is defined as logarithm of heat (kcal/h) divided by logarithm of body weight (kg).

Results

Heat production did not vary with age in male or female cats. Heat coefficient was higher in sexually intact male and female cats than in gonadectomized male and female cats at 12, 18, and 24 months of age (12 months, females, P < 0.01, males, P = 0.04; 18 months, females, P < 0.01, males, P = 0.02; and 24 months, females and males, P < 0.01).

Conclusions

These data suggest that resting metabolic rate in cats decreases after gonadectomy.

Clinical Relevance

A decrease in metabolic rate is synonymous with a decrease in caloric requirements. Gonadectomized animals fed in a manner similar to sexually intact animals may be predisposed to obesity and its sequelae.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:371-374)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether changes in concentrations of hormones involved in glucose and fatty acid homeostasis are responsible for the increased probability that neutered cats will develop obesity and diabetes mellitus.

Animals—10 male and 10 female weight-maintained adult cats.

Procedure—Results of glucose tolerance tests and concentrations of hormones and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were examined before and 4, 8, and 16 weeks after neutering.

Results—Caloric requirements for weight maintenance were significantly decreased 8 and 16 weeks after neutering in females. Glucose concentrations during a glucose tolerance test did not change in neutered females or males. The area under the curve (AUC) for insulin was significantly higher in males, compared with females, before neutering. However, the AUC for insulin increased and was significantly higher 4 and 8 weeks after neutering in females. The AUC for insulin did not change in neutered male cats. Leptin concentrations did not change in females but increased significantly in males 8 and 16 weeks after neutering. Thyroxine concentrations did not change after neutering; however, free thyroxine concentration was significantly higher in females than males before neutering. Baseline concentrations of NEFA were significantly higher in female than male cats before but not after neutering. Suppression of NEFA concentrations after glucose administration decreased successively in male cats after neutering, suggesting decreased insulin sensitivity.

Conclusionss and Clinical Relevance—Changes in NEFA suppression, caloric intake, and leptin concentrations may be indicators of, and possible risk factors for, the development of obesity in cats after neutering. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:634–639)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether apparently resting dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies have increased resting energy expenditure (REE), compared with clinically normal dogs.

Animals

46 client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies and 30 client-owned dogs that were clinically normal.

Procedure

Apparently resting, client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies before (n = 46) and 4 to 6 weeks after (n = 30) surgical removal of tumors were compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). An open flow indirect calorimetry system was used to determine the following: rate of oxygen consumption (ml/min/kg of body weight); rate of carbon dioxide production (mls/min/kg), REE (kcal/kg/d), and respiratory quotient. Because of the wide range of body weight, REE and oxygen consumption were also expressed per kg of body weight0.75.

Results

Surgical removal of the tumor did not significantly alter any of the variables measured when all dogs with tumors were assessed as a single group, or when the dogs were divided on the basis of having the following types of tumors: carcinomas and sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and mammary adenocarcinomas. None of the data obtained prior to surgical treatment from any of the dogs grouped by tumor type were significantly different from clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions

REE (54.4 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 125 ± 19 kcal/kg0.75/d) and, presumably, caloric requirements of dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies are not significantly different from those obtained from clinically normal dogs (53.9 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 116 ± 32 kcal/kg0.75/d). Furthermore, these variables do not change significantly when the tumor is excised and the dog is reassessed after 4 to 6 weeks.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge that REE in dogs with solid tumors is not significantly different from REE of clinically normal dogs may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1463-1467)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

on daily caloric requirements, the EDB can determine the amount of nutrient per calorie fed. 25 Thus, EDB is more relevant when evaluating and comparing diets. 25 Iron values were more accurate for weight measurement tools on an EDB, suggesting that

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

monitoring progression of disease or the efficacy of a treatment . In addition, extent of activity directly affects an individual dog's energy balance and factors into that dog's caloric requirement, so an objective means of quantifying activity might also be

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

achieve a target weight loss of approximately 1.5% of BW/wk. The American Animal Hospital Association has recommended 2 options for determining daily caloric requirements for weight loss. 15 One option is to feed an amount that would provide 80% of the

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

assessments of body weight and physical examination. Feeding was limited to a predetermined amount of food on the basis of daily caloric requirements as determined by the following formula: 1.4 ×(70 ×body weight [kilograms]) 0.75 = kilocalories per day. 11

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cause an increase in EE as well as a shift in macronutrient metabolism from mixed macronutrient usage toward carbohydrate use. 4 These stress-induced increases in EE may lead to an overestimation of their caloric requirements, and the inaccuracy of

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research