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, or stillbirths of previously viable fetuses. 5 Initial diagnostic tests routinely recommended for dogs presented with possible dystocia include assessment of blood glucose and ionized calcium levels as well as abdominal imaging. Hypoglycemia and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

formation are needed to develop effective diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies. Between 1981 and 2007, 941 urolith submissions were sent to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 19 ruminant species, and the prevalence of calcium carbonate

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Alterations in serum calcium and magnesium concentrations are common in horses that are affected by a variety of disorders (eg, exercise-induced electrolyte loss, chronic renal failure, and sepsis). 1–4 In addition, because of their influence on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

paralysis or somnolence develops, typically within 72 hours of parturition. The condition most often develops in high-yield cows. If treatment is not initiated, the disease can be fatal. 6,7 In mammals, calcium plays an integral role in many physiologic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Studies of blood calcium concentrations in chelonians date back to the early 20th century. 1 Measurements of blood calcium concentrations are now widely used in clinical settings to monitor calcium homeostasis in humans and animals, including

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

aggregates, which were translucent with glassy luster ( Figure 2 ). Results of infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and polarization microscopy ( Figure 3 ) indicated that the uroliths were composed of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate; CaSO 4 •2H 2 O

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

,24,25 Improving the dietary calcium intake of captive insectivores has profound clinical importance in disease prevention. Various intestinal loading protocols for crickets and mealworms have been described; however, intestinal loading protocols have not been

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

carry out a series of urine metabolomics studies on urolithiasis and found that urolithiasis patients had characteristic urine metabolites. 8 Calcium oxalate and struvite stones are the most common types of stones in clinical cases of canine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the electrolyte composition of the preparturient secretions occur as foaling nears. As the mare approaches foaling, concentrations of sodium and chloride ions decrease and concentrations of calcium, potassium, protein, and lactose increase. 4,5 The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Hypercalcemia may be caused by renal failure, malignancy, hypervitaminosis D, increased protein-bound calcium, and hypoadrenocorticism. 1 Granulomatous disease, including blastomycosis, is considered to be a less common cause of hypercalcemia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association