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innate and adaptive immune systems, including B lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. 2,4,5 In humans, calcitriol attenuates inflammation while also enhancing protective functions such as phagocytosis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

receptor expression has been detected in most immune cells, and many immune cells produce 1-α hydroxylase, enabling them to synthesize calcitriol. 1,2 In humans, calcitriol attenuates inflammation while also enhancing protective antimicrobial functions of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction In dogs and cats, vitamin D (cholecalciferol) must be derived from the diet and undergo 2 enzymatic modifications for conversion to calcitriol. The first conversion to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) occurs in the liver. In the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

maintains calcium homeostasis in the body via its effects on bone and renal tubules and the stimulation of calcitriol (1,25[OH] 2 D 3 ) synthesis. 6 In the latter stages of CKD, the clinical consequences of increased PTH concentration include renal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with appropriate calcitriol treatment with or without supplemental calcium administration in the immediate postoperative period. Use of calcitriol or a vitamin D analog was based on clinician preference. Of the 11 dogs that became hypocalcemic in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

value was > 1.0 mmol/L and no clinical signs of hypocalcemia were observed. On the third day after surgery, treatment involving administration of calcium carbonate p (47 mg/kg [21.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) and calcitriol k (0.03 μg/kg [0.014 mg/lb], PO, q

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

kidneys, promoting the synthesis of CTR. 16 Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), which is synthesized in the kidneys from its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Calcitriol exerts hypercalcemic and hyperphosphatemic actions by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In the Timely Topics in Nutrition report “Vitamin D metabolism in canine and feline medicine” (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250;1259–1269), Figure 1 is incorrect. There should not be an arrow between 1,25-(OH) 2 -D (calcitriol) and 24,25-(OH) 2 -D

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Approximately 70% of phosphorus absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejunum, through a combination of passive diffusion and a sodium-dependent active transport mechanism stimulated by calcitriol. Parathyroid hormone and a low serum phosphorus concentration

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

closely regulated along with phosphorus via parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and calcitonin. 1 – 3 During periods of hypocalcemia, PTH secretion increases plasma calcium via mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from bone

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association