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T he characteristic call and large size of the American bullfrog ( Lithobates catesbeianus ) make these animals popular in zoological institutions as well as a common pet in many American households. Amphibian populations, including those of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A 273-g (0.6-lb) adult male American bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) was evaluated by the TRT of the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine because of injuries sustained as a result of vehicular trauma. The TRT accepts wild

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Use of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride (1:1 fixed ratio combination) as an anesthetic agent in 2 anuran species was studied. A dosage of 5 mg/kg of body weight, administered im, resulted in variable weak tranquilization. Intramuscular administration at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg induced variable states of tranquilization or anesthesia in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and bullfrogs (R catesbeiana). The dosages of 50 mg/kg induced anesthesia with greater consistency than lower dosages in bullfrogs, but resulted in mortalities. The same dosage was uniformly fatal in leopard frogs. Neither gross nor histologic lesions were identified in the frogs that died.

Depth and duration of anesthesia was dosage related. At the 20 and 50 mg/kg dosages, leopard frogs attained a greater depth of anesthesia and remained anesthetized for a significantly greater duration than did bullfrogs; however, at the 5 and 10 mg/kg dosages, bullfrogs developed greater tranquilization for longer periods than did leopard frogs. Results of this study revealed profound intraspecies variation in depth and duration of effect of tiletamine/zolazepam; therefore, the drug does not appear to be a suitable injectable anesthetic in anurans.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

History Seven adult captive-bred American bullfrogs ( Lithobates catesbeianus ) were purchased from a vendor and transported from the East Coast region to Oklahoma for teaching purposes. All bullfrogs were apparently healthy, except one had a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), 7 bearded dragons ( Pogona vitticeps ), 8 and American bullfrogs ( Lithobates catesbeianus ). 9 As snake anatomy differs greatly from other species of animals due to their lack of appendages and extended body length, it is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to their intended use. Surgical treatment, however, was not significantly associated with outcome. See PAGE 1195 CLINICAL REPORT Internal fixation of a femur fracture in an American bullfrog Presently, there are no widely accepted

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

For example, in American bullfrogs ( Bufo catesbeiana ), at 5°C, pulmonary uptake of oxygen accounts for 32.8% of total uptake, whereas at 25°C, pulmonary uptake increases to 66%. 3 In the present study, there was a significant difference in room

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The cost of restoring the environment and biodiversity Since I spent time as a young boy long-lining bullfrogs and fishing for bass with hand-caught leopard frogs, the recent paucity of frogs in my favored bogs drew my attention to the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of Mycobacterium marinum infection among captive snakes and bullfrogs . Zoo Biol 2002 ; 21 : 233 – 241 . 10.1002/zoo.10022 18. Murray MJ . Pneumonia and lower respiratory tract disease . In: Mader DR , ed. Reptile and medicine surgery

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

orders (eg, bovids, chickens, bullfrogs, and teleost and elasmobranch fishes), 21 but there is limited information on opioid receptors in reptiles. For example, μ- and δ-opioid receptors are located throughout the brain in aquatic turtles, and δ

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association