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accumulation of its substrate drugs, but the relationship between curcumin and chicken P-gp has not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of curcumin on the expression and functional activity of broiler chicken P-gp. We

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

trade-off between growth and immune function. 50 Compared with layers, meat-type (broiler) chickens have a lower cytokine response. 51 The underlying mechanism for that finding might be simplified as broilers having an unbalanced allocation of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Figure 1 Photograph of the liver of a 3-week-old commercial broiler chicken that was submitted for necropsy due to flock history of elevated mortality. The chicken presented unthrifty with yellow-tinged diarrhea. The liver is moderately enlarged, pale

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Of 105 Salmonella organisms of any serotype selected from a sample of 1,824 serotyped salmonellae isolated during a nationwide bacteriologic survey of healthy broiler chickens after slaughter, 60 (57%) were resistant to 1 or more antimicrobial agents and 47 (45%) were resistant to 2 or more agents. Highest resistance was to tetracycline (45%), streptomycin (41%), sulfisoxazole (19%), gentamicin (10%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (8%). Additional isolates of S typhimurium, heidelberg, agona, and enteritidis were selected from the sample of 1,824 isolates for testing because of the high frequency with which these 4 serotypes are isolated from human patients. The highest frequency of resistance among 104 isolates of S heidelberg, 92 isolates of S typhimurium, and 30 isolates of S agona was to streptomycin (33 to 57%), sulfisoxazole (33 to 50%), tetracycline (26 to 50%), and gentamicin (13 to 40%); 51 to 63% of these isolates were resistant to 1 or more agents and 37 to 59% were resistant to 2 or more agents. Resistance to ampicillin among these 3 serotypes was uncommon (0 to 4%). In contrast, 15 of 19 tested isolates (79%) of S enteritidis were resistant to ampicillin and 13 of the 19 isolates (68%) were resistant only to ampicillin. This pattern of resistance was associated with a specific bacteriophage type and indicated the potential role of bacterial clones in determining the frequency and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in populations of broiler chickens. Resistance to gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was higher than that previously reported and is of public health concern because of the frequency with which these drugs are used to treat bacterial infections in human patients.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To determine pharmacokinetic characteristics of marbofloxacin after a single IV and oral administration and tissue residues after serial daily oral administration in chickens.

Animals—40 healthy broiler chickens.

Procedure—Two groups of chickens (groups A and B; 8 chickens/group) were administered a single IV and oral administration of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg). Chickens of group C (n = 24) were given serial daily doses of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 3 days). Plasma (groups A and B) and tissue concentrations (group C) of marbofloxacin and its major metabolite N-desmethyl-marbofloxacin were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of marbofloxacin and N-desmethyl-marbofloxacin were measured in target tissues.

Results—Elimination half-life and mean residence time of marbofloxacin in plasma were 5.26 and 4.36 hours after IV administration and 8.69 and 8.55 hours after oral administration, respectively. Maximal plasma concentration was 1.05 µg/ml, and interval from oral administration until maximum concentration was 1.48 hours. Oral bioavailability of marbofloxacin was 56.82%. High concentrations of marbofloxacin and N-desmethyl- marbofloxacin were found in the kidneys, liver, muscles, and skin plus fat 24 hours after the final dose of marbofloxacin; however, marbofloxacin and N-desmethyl-marbofloxacin were detected in only hepatic (27.6 and 98.7 µg/kg, respectively) and renal (39.7 and 69.1 µg/kg, respectively) tissues 72 hours after termination of marbofloxacin treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in this study reveals that a minimal therapeutic dose of 2 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours should be appropriate for control of most infections in chickens. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:927–933)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

oxygen homeostasis-related genes in broiler chickens . Front Physiol . 2019 ; 10 : 1251 . doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01251 4. Bailey RA , Watson KA , Bilgili S , Avendano S . The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Norfloxacin was given to 2 groups of chickens (8 chickens/group) at a dosage of 8 mg/kg of body weight, iv and orally. For 24 hours, plasma concentration was monitored serially after each administration. Another group of chickens (n = 30) was given 8 mg of norfloxacin/kg orally every 24 hours for 4 days, and plasma and tissue concentrations of norfloxacin and its major metabolites desethylenenorfloxacin and oxonorfloxacin were determined serially after the last administration of the drug. Plasma and tissue concentrations of norfloxacin, desethylenenorfloxacin, and oxonorfloxacin were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated, using a 2-compartment open model. For norfloxacin, the elimination half-life (t1/2β) and the mean ± sem residence time for plasma were 12.8 ± 0.59 and 15.05 ± 0.81 hours, respectively, after oral administration and 8.0 ± 0.3 and 8.71 ± 0.23 hours, respectively, after iv administration. After single oral administration, norfloxacin was absorbed rapidly, with Tmax of 0.22 ± 0.02 hour. Maximal plasma concentration was 2.89 ± 0.20 μg/ml. Oral bioavailability of norfloxacin was found to be 57.0 ± 2.4%. In chickens, norfloxacin was mainly converted to desethylenenorfloxacin and oxonorfloxacin. Norfloxacin parent drug and its 2 major metabolites were widely distributed in tissues. Considerable tissue concentrations of norfloxacin, desethylenenorfloxacin, and oxonorfloxacin were found when norfloxacin was administered orally (8 mg/kg on 4 successive days). The concentration of the parent fluoroquinolone in fat, kidneys, and liver was 0.05 μg/g on day 12 after the end of dosing.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that erythrocyte deformability is decreased in the development of cardiac failure induced by NaCl toxicosis. Deformability of erythrocytes and routine hematologic and biochemical variables were measured in 6 of 50 chickens that were given 5 g of NaCl/L in their drinking water from day 7 to day 42, and were compared with values in 6 of 50 healthy chickens given free access to tap water. Deformability was assessed by passing a 10% suspension of erythrocytes through a polycarbonate membrane with 5-µm pores. Chickens were euthanatized and heart and body weights were determined.

Treatment with NaCl induced right-sided cardiac failure up to day 28. The ratios of heart weight to body weight were greater, for right ventricle by 20 to 64% and for left ventricle by 15 to 27%, attributable to NaCl treatment. Deformability of erythrocytes of NaCl-treated chickens was markedly decreased, in association with increased erythrocyte size and plasma Na+ concentration. However, only part of the decreased deformability could be explained by swelling of erythrocytes. Decreased deformability could not be explained by increased cell viscosity because mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, the primary determinant of erythrocyte viscosity, was decreased. Because decreased deformability of erythrocytes has been demonstrated previously to be associated with increased vascular resistance, decreased deformability may have contributed to the development of right-sided cardiac failure in these chickens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Inclusion of lactose in the diets of chickens has been determined to reduce cecal colonization with Salmonella typhimurium. We hypothesized, therefore, that dietary lactose may be a practical means for reducing the prevalence of Salmonella contamination of chicken products. Because some strains of Salmonella are atypical and ferment lactose, we investigated the effects of dietary lactose on cecal colonization with lactose-fermenting S typhimurium. Broiler chicks were inoculated intracloacally with Lac+ S typhimurium selected for resistance to novobiocin and rifampicin. The chicks also were inoculated orally with certain anaerobes that do not effectively inhibit colonization by S typhimurium, but do appear essential for lactose mediated inhibition of cecal colonization. Control chicks were not given dietary lactose, and chicks in the experimental group were fed a diet containing 7% lactose. Enumeration of Lac+ S typhimurium in cecal contents revealed dietary lactose to be effective at controlling this organism. Control was correlated with changes in cecal pH and increases in undissociated volatile fatty acids, especially propionic acid.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To genetically type Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler houses or the external environment to identify the source of Campylobacter organisms in broiler chickens.

Sample Population—Environmental samples associated with broiler chickens, in commercial grow-out houses.

Procedure—Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify flaB, and the amplicon was digested with Sau3A to create a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay; PCR was also used to detect a transcribed spacer region in the 23S rRNA gene.

Results—Isolates possessing a 23S spacer region were more prevalent outside broiler houses than inside. Houses that had previously contained chickens or lacked biosecurity procedures were more likely to contain isolates possessing the 23S spacer. One house contained only isolates possessing the spacer, whereas an adjacent house contained only isolates lacking the spacer. The flaB type detected in broiler houses was different from the type detected in the environment; however, many isolates within the broiler houses contained untypable flaB genotypes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most isolates from within houses were genetically distinct from isolates from outside houses that were examined by bacteriologic culture, suggesting an undetected source of C jejuni. Detection of isolates containing the 23S spacer appeared to be an indicator of environmental contamination of the houses. The observation of completely different C jejuni genetic types simultaneously within adjacent houses suggests that some types do not compete successfully during the grow-out period. In addition, the diversity of genotypes identified within broiler houses indicates the complexity of the ecologic features of C jejuni in the chicken environment. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:190–194)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research