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OSA is a condition for which Bulldogs have been used in research. 14 Given the high prevalence of risk factors in brachycephalic dog breeds, it has been postulated that dogs with this type of conformation are at risk for aspiration pneumonia. 15

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the prevalence of oral bacteria in the conjunctiva of brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs.

ANIMALS

12 brachycephalic (9.58 ± 3.55 years) and 12 nonbrachycephalic (8.33 ± 4.92 years) dogs without systemic disease, regardless of breed and sex, were included in the study, and half of the dogs in each group had periodontitis.

METHODS

This prospective study investigated clinical data including craniofacial ratio, ophthalmic examination results, and periodontal status of the included dogs. Bacterial samples were collected by swabbing the oral mucosa and conjunctival surfaces. The presence and quantity of bacteria were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the 10-fold dilution method. Statistical analyses were performed to assess correlations and factors influencing the presence of oral bacteria in the conjunctiva.

RESULTS

The most common bacteria in the conjunctival flora in both groups were Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium spp, and Staphylococcus spp. The prevalence of oral bacteria on the conjunctival surface was 33%, with a significantly higher incidence in brachycephalic dogs (P = .027). Oral bacteria detected in the conjunctiva were predominantly Frederiksenia canicola, Neisseria spp, and Moraxella spp. Multiple regression analysis identified age, craniofacial ratio, and gingival index as factors influencing the presence of oral bacteria in the conjunctival flora.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Oral resident bacteria have often been isolated from severe infectious corneal ulcers. This study provided evidence that brachycephalic dogs may require dental prophylaxis to reduce their oral bacterial load and that the association of oral bacteria in ocular diseases should be considered.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

perpendicular cranium development relative to the facial axis. 11 Both brachycephalic dog breeds and AR horses have a genetic predisposition for congenital upper respiratory disorders, that is, brachycephalic syndrome and guttural pouch tympany, respectively. 2

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction In brachycephalic dog breeds, facial retrusion, proximodistal shortening of the snout, and widening of the hard palate has been associated with several genetic loci. 1 , 2 , 3 Some brachycephalic dog breeds, such as Bulldogs

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eighteen eyes of 66 dogs were visual on reevaluation of traumatic proptosis. Twenty-one eyes were enucleated, and 4 dogs were euthanatized. In 18 cats, no eyes regained vision after traumatic proptosis: 12 cats had the affected eye enucleated, 2 had an eye that was considered blind, and 4 cats were euthanatized. Affected eyes of 45 dogs and 2 cats underwent surgical replacement and temporary tarsorrhaphy. Favorable prognostic indicators for eyes undergoing surgical replacement included proptosis in a brachycephalic dog, positive direct or consensual pupillary light response, normal findings on posterior segment examination, and a proptosed eye that had vision on initial examination. Unfavorable prognostic indicators included proptosis in a nonbrachycephalic dog, proptosis in cats, hyphema, no visible pupil, facial fractures, optic nerve damage, and avulsion of 3 or more extraocular muscles.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

been conducted to evaluate whether brachycephalic dogs are more prone than nonbrachycephalic dogs to develop perianesthetic complications during routine surgeries. The purposes of the study reported here were to determine whether brachycephalic dog

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-producing Escherichia coli and the correct interpretation of susceptibility results and proper selection of antimicrobial treatment. See page 850 Small Animals Clinical features and prognostic indicators for aspiration pneumonia in three brachycephalic

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, 0 to 3) the entire right maxillary fourth premolar tooth because of overlapping of adjacent teeth and the zygomatic arch as well as dental pathological changes in a brachycephalic dog. Figure 2— Dental radiographic view (A) and CBCT images

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

rendering [3-D method; C], and serial CBCT slices and custom cross sections [Slices method; D]) and used for evaluation of periodontitis of the right maxillary second incisor tooth (arrow) of a brachycephalic dog. Although loss of alveolar bone

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction A 9-year-old 13.6-kg neutered male mixed-breed brachycephalic dog was referred because of a 3-week history of ataxia and an acute-onset, nonprogressive, right-sided head tilt and a 6-month history of visual and hearing impairment

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association