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in 1954 but another 10 years of serial passage was required before it was safe for vaccination. 1 Similar efforts to culture and attenuate bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) resulted in the development of the first MLV vaccine for cattle during nearly the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with contemporary BHV-1 vaccines. ABBREVIATIONS BHV-1 Bovine herpesvirus-1 OD Optical density a. Prairie Diagnostic Services, Saskatoon, SK, Canada: Unpublished data, 2004. b. Mictoil, Elanco Animal Health, Guelph, ON, Canada

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Spleen cells from a calf immunized with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) were fused with the nonsecreting murine cell line SP2/0. Several bovine-murine hybridomas secreting bovine immunoglobulins were stabilized. Of these, 9 hybridomas secreted bovine monoclonal antibodies that specifically bound to BHV-1 in a radioimmunoassay. Two of these monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with BHV-1 in an indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoprecipitated a BHV-1 glycoprotein with molecular mass of 97 kilodaltons.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,16 Bovine herpesvirus-1 is an important pathogen of cattle with worldwide distribution. Infections with BHV-1 result in major economic losses in the cattle industry. This virus is a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily and is classified as 1 of 3

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

produced with aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and Pasteurella haemolytica. Can J Comp Med 1978 ; 42 : 269 – 277 . 23. Ushikubi F Segi E Sugimoto Y , et al. Impaired febrile response in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,000 CCID 50 /mL. The PI steers had no clinical signs of BVDV infection during the challenge period. Transmission of BVDV among the commingled cattle was confirmed by seroconversion to BVDV in the control heifers. Bovine herpesvirus 1 was detected in serum

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of an inactivated bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine to protect against BHV-1 challenge-induced abortion and stillbirth.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—35 beef heifers.

Procedures—Before breeding, heifers were vaccinated with a commercially available BHV-1 inactivated vaccine SC or IM. The estrous cycle was then synchronized, and heifers were artificially inseminated 30 to 60 days after vaccination. Heifers (n = 21) were challenge inoculated IV at approximately 180 days of gestation with virulent BHV-1. Fourteen control heifers were not vaccinated. Clinical signs of BHV-1 infection were monitored for 10 days following challenge; serologic status and occurrence of abortion or stillbirth were evaluated until time of calving.

Results—18 of 21 (85.7%) heifers that received vaccine were protected from abortion following challenge, whereas all 14 control heifers aborted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that an inactivated BHV-1 vaccine can protect against abortion resulting from a substantial challenge infection, with efficacy similar to that of modified-live BHV-1 vaccines.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The Cooper isolate of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) was used to produce a thymidine kinase-negative ( tk ) recombinant by insertion of a β-galactosidase (bgal) expression cassette into the tk coding region. The recombinant virus (tk bgal+) was tested for abortifacient activity in cattle by inoculation of 5 pregnant heifers at 25 to 29 weeks gestation. Five additional heifers were inoculated with the Cooper tk positive ( tk +) virus to serve as controls. After inoculation, both groups of heifers developed similar febrile responses and neutralizing antibody titers. Virus was isolated from blood of all heifers during the first postinoculation (pi) week, and isolation frequencies were similar for both groups. In contrast, whereas virus was isolated from many of the nasal and vaginal swab specimens of heifers inoculated with tk + virus, only rare virus isolations were made from the heifers given tk bgal+ virus. All heifers inoculated with tk + virus aborted between pidays 19 and 35. The finding of characteristic microscopic lesions and viral antigen in fetal tissues indicated that the abortions were caused by bhv-1 infection. Virus was isolated from 3 fetuses, and all isolates were tk +. Two heifers inoculated with tk bgal+ virus aborted at PI days 25 and 39. Fetal tissues had typical bhv-1 microscopic lesions and viral antigen. Virus was isolated from blood of both fetuses, and the isolates were tk bgal+. Results of this study indicate that inactivation of the tk gene reduces, but does not eliminate, the abortifacient activity of bhv-1.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Genomic DNA samples and health records from 98 unrelated, mixed-breed cattle inoculated with bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) were examined to determine the relationship between interferon (ifn) genotype and severity of clinical disease. Cattle were retrospectively classified as moderately or severely affected on the basis of rectal temperature, feed intake, and weight gain after intranasal inoculation of bhv-1. Southern blot analysis of 16 type-I ifn genes identified alleles at 3 ifn loci (IFNB1, IFNW4, and IFNW8) that were significantly associated with the more severe clinical phenotype (odds ratios = 4.1 [P= 0.01], 2.3 [P< 0.05] and 2.4 [P= 0.06], respectively). A second allele at the IFNB1 locus was associated with the milder disease phenotype (odds ratio = 2.9, P< 0.05). These results indicate that selective breeding programs aimed at altering the frequency of these alleles in cattle populations may potentially improve animal health and lessen the economic impact of bhv-1 infection on cattle producers.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The Cooper isolate of bovine herpesvirus-1, which causes abortion in cattle, was used to construct a thymidine kinase- negative (tk- ) deletion mutant virus. Twelve heifers were inoculated iv at 25 to 29 weeks of pregnancy with either tk- or thymidine kinase-positive (tk+ ) Cooper virus. All heifers developed fevers of 1 to 2 C during the first week after inoculation. Temperatures of tk+ inoculates were slightly higher and remained above normal a few days longer than in tk- inoculates. Viremia was detected in 5 of 6 tk+ inoculates and in all 6 tk- inoculates. More virus isolations were made from nasal and vaginal swab specimens of tk+ inoculates than from swab specimens of tk- inoculates. All heifers developed virus neutralizing antibody within 14 days after inoculation and antibody titers were similar between the 2 groups. None of the tk- inoculated heifers aborted and their calves did not have neutralizing antibody at birth. Abortion occurred in 5 of 6 heifers given tk+ virus. All aborted fetuses were infected with bovine herpesvirus-1, as demonstrated by virus isolation or detection of viral antigen in fetal tissues. These results indicate that inactivation of the tk gene reduces abortifacient activity of bovine herpesvirus-1.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research