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also replicates in the URT. Both enteric and respiratory infections have been associated with bovine coronavirus (BC) in cattle, and modified-live BC vaccines that are administered either orally or IN are commercially available to prevent diarrhea in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Bovine coronavirus is a cultivable, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus in the Coronavirus genus within the Coronaviridae family and the Nidovirales order. It was first reported in diarrheic calves by Mebus et al. 1 Bovine coronavirus is a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

identified as another important contributor to BRD. 8 Bovine coronavirus is ubiquitous in cattle populations worldwide and was initially associated with outbreaks of enteric disease. It is now recognized to have an etiologic role in 3 distinct clinical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(including inactivated vaccines) under field conditions and may not detect vaccine- and disease-associated effects of vitamin A. 28 Bovine coronavirus is a nonsegmented, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the family Coronaviridae and order

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the association between respiratory tract infection with bovine coronavirus (BCV), treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions at slaughter, and average daily gain in cattle in feedlots.

Animals—837 calves in feedlots in Ohio and Texas.

Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained from cattle at arrival in a feedlot (day 0) and at various times during the initial 28 days after arrival. Specimens were tested for BCV, using an antigencapture ELISA. Serum samples were obtained at arrival and again 28 days after arrival and tested for antibodies to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA. Information was collected regarding treatment for cattle with respiratory tract disease and average daily gain during the feeding period. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated at slaughter.

Results—Cattle shedding BCV from the nasal cavity and developing an antibody response against BCV were 1.6 times more likely to require treatment for respiratory tract disease than cattle that did not shed the virus or develop an immune response against BCV. Additionally, cattle that shed BCV from the nasal cavity were 2.2 times more likely to have pulmonary lesions at slaughter than cattle that did not shed the virus. The BCV shedding or seroconversion status did not affect average daily gain.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus infects feedlot cattle and is associated with an increased risk for cattle developing respiratory tract disease and pulmonary lesions. Development of appropriate control measures could help reduce the incidence of respiratory tract disease. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1062–1066)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine coronavirus (BCV) and shedding of BCV from the respiratory tract in feedlot cattle.

Animals—1,074 calves in feedlots in Ohio, Texas, and Nebraska.

Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained at time of arrival (day 0) and at various times during the initial 28 days after arrival at feedlots. Specimens were tested for BCV, using an antigen-capture ELISA. Serum samples were obtained at time of arrival and again 28 days after arrival; sera were analyzed for antibodies to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA.

Results—Samples from 12 groups of cattle entering 7 feedlots during a 3-year period revealed that 78 of 1,074 (7.3%) cattle were shedding BCV (range, 0 to 35.9% within specific groups). At time of arrival, 508 of 814 (62.4%) cattle had low (< 50) or undetectable BCV antibody titers. Seroconversion to BCV during the initial 28 days after arrival was detected in 473 of 814 (58%) cattle tested (range, 20.3 to 84.1% within specific groups). In cattle shedding BCV from the nasal passages, 49 of 68 (72.1%) seroconverted, and 472 of 746 (63.3%) cattle that were not shedding the virus seroconverted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus can be detected in populations of feedlot cattle in the form of viral shedding as well as seroconversion to the virus. Although only a few cattle were shedding the virus at the time of arrival at a feedlot, most of the cattle seroconverted to BCV by 28 days after arrival. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1057–1061)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate in vitro antigenic relations, in vivo cross-protection, and isotype antibody responses to a winter dysentery (WD) and calf diarrhea strain of bovine coronavirus (BCV).

Design and Animals

Gnotobiotic and colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated oronasally with a WD (DBA) or a calf diarrhea (DB2) BCV, and were challenge exposed with the heterologous BCV.

Procedure

Nasal swab and feces specimens and blood samples were collected. Fecal and nasal specimens were assayed for BCV shedding by antigen-capture ELISA or immune electron microscopy. Bovine coronavirus antigens were detected in nasal epithelial cells by immunofluorescence. Antibody titers to BCV in serum were assayed by virus neutralization (VN), and BCV antibody isotype titers in feces and sera were quantitated by ELISA.

Results

All calves developed diarrhea and shed BCV nasally and in feces, then recovered and were protected from BCV-associated diarrhea after challenge exposure with the heterologous BCV. After challenge exposure with either strain, fecal shedding of DBA was detected in 1 of 4 calves and nasal shedding of DB2 was detected in 2 of 4 calves. Immunoglobulin M was the principal coproantibody to BCV early, followed predominantly by IgA. Immunoglobulin G1 coproantibody titers to BCV were low, but increased after challenge exposure. Immunoglobulin G1 antibodies were predominant in serum. After challenge exposure, all serum antibody isotype titers increased except IgG2. The VN antibody responses paralleled serum IgG1, antibody responses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Immunoglobulin A coproantibodies at challenge exposure were associated with protection against diarrhea. Nasal shedding of BCV after challenge exposure confirmed field data documenting reinfection of the respiratory tract of cattle, suggesting that, in closed herds, respiratory tract infections constitute a source of BCV transmission to cows (WD) or young calves. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:48-53)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the relationship between shedding of bovine coronavirus (BCV) via the respiratory tract and enteric routes and the association with weight gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—56 crossbred steers.

Procedures—Paired fecal samples and nasal swab specimens were obtained and were tested for BCV, using antigen-capture ELISA. Paired serum samples obtained were tested for antibodies to BCV, using antibody-detection ELISA. Information was collected on weight gain, clinical signs, and treatments for enteric and respiratory tract disease during the study period.

Results—Number of samples positive for bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCV) or bovine enteric coro navirus (BECV) was 37/224 (17%) and 48/223 (22%), respectively. Some cattle (25/46, 45%) shed BECV and BRCV. There were 25/29 (86%) cattle positive for BECV that shed BRCV, but only 1/27 (4%) cattle negative to BECV shed BRCV. Twenty-seven of 48 (56%) paired nasal swab specimens and fecal samples positive for BECV were positive for BRCV. In contrast, only 10/175 (6%) paired nasal swab specimens and fecal samples negative for BECV were positive for BRCV. Only shedding of BECV was associated with significantly reduced weight gain. Seroconversion to BCV during the 21 days after arrival was detected in 95% of the cattle tested.

Conclusions and Clinical Implications—Feedlot cattle infected with BCV after transport shed BCV from the respiratory tract and in the feces. Fecal shedding of BCV was associated with significantly reduced weight gain. Developing appropriate control measures for BCV infections could help reduce the decreased weight gain observed among infected feedlot cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1436–1441)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To further validate an antibody-capture ELISA for measuring bovine coronavirus (BCV) exposure (antibody seroresponse) in cattle and to explain the apparent loss of sensitivity of a BCV antigen-capture ELISA when testing feces from adult versus neonatal cattle.

Animals

98 adult cows from herds with and without winter dysentery; 10 gnotobiotic or colostrum-deprived calves.

Procedures

Results of an antibody-capture ELISA for BCV and a plaque reduction virus neutralization assay performed on paired serum samples from 24 cattle were compared with each other and with results of immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) of feces for BCV. For samples from 98 cattle, results of antibody-capture ELISA were compared with results of IEM. Calves were inoculated with feces ELISA-positive or IEM-positive for BCV and monitored for BCV infection. An ELISA was developed to detect BCV antigen-antibody complexes in feces and results were compared with results of an antigen-capture ELISA and IEM.

Results

Antibody-capture ELISA results correlated with neutralization assay results, but agreed more closely with results of IEM. Calves became infected with BCV following inoculation with either ELISA-positive or ELISA-negative but IEM-positive feces. Results of the antigen-antibody ELISA correlated with results of IEM and the antigen-capture ELISA.

Clinical Implications

In adult cattle, testing of paired serum samples by use of an antibody-capture ELISA may be a better indicator of recent BCV exposure than results of virus neutralization tests. Antigen-antibody binding in feces may interfere with results of antigen-capture ELISA for BCV. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:956–960)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Blood, feces, nasal secretions, and tears were collected weekly from 5 randomly selected 1- to 8-week-old calves in a large commercial dairy herd. Clinical signs and bovine coronavirus (bcv) shedding from the respiratory and enteric tracts of calves were monitored through the 8- week period by direct immunofluorescence of nasal epithelial cells, protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy on feces, and ELISA on nasal secretions and feces. All samples were analyzed for antibody isotypes to bcv structural proteins by immunoblotting.

All calves had bcv respiratory tract infections and 4 of 5 calves shed virus in feces. Several calves had multiple or prolonged periods of bcv respiratory tract or enteric tract shedding or both. All calves (except 1) had passive IgG1 antibodies to some bcv proteins (mainly the E2 and E3 proteins) in their serum when they were 1 week old. The presence of these passive serum antibodies (mainly to the E2 and E3 bcv proteins) was associated with decreased or delayed systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves, in particular IgA responses in nasal secretions and tears to the E2 and E3 bcv proteins, but not to the N protein. Moderate amounts of maternal bcv E2- and ES-specific antibodies in serum did not prevent bcv enteric tract or respiratory tract infections in calves, but may have delayed the development of active antibody responses to these bcv proteins. However, calves with bcv respiratory tract or enteric tract infections had no detectable passive antibodies to any bcv proteins in nasal secretions or feces.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research