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drained aqueous humor is absorbed into the surrounding vasculature, accompanied by the formation of a filtering bleb. 5 , 6 One of the most significant complications of such shunting surgery is the fibrosis of the bleb, which can obstruct aqueous

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

subpleural bullae or blebs. 1,2,5,8 In the human literature, 9 a bleb is defined as an air-filled alveolar dilatation < 1 cm in diameter, located near the pleural surface of the lung. A bulla is defined as an airfilled space > 1 cm in diameter, also located

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

moderate pneumothorax with generalized lung atelectasis that was more pronounced in the caudal lung lobes and no evidence of blebs or bullae. In the radiographic views, the liver was moderately enlarged, with rounded margins. A test for circulating

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

bilateral pneumothorax as well as possible pulmonary blebs in the medial aspect of the cranial lung lobes. Anesthetic recovery was unremarkable, and the dog was returned to the intensive care unit for continued monitoring. The dog was anesthetized again

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Pathologic changes in the endometrium of mares may be rated according to Kenney's method of classification. Category I endometrium contains healthy tissue with no or few widely scattered pathologic changes. At the opposite end, severe widespread pathologic changes are associated with category III.

Uterine biopsy specimens were collected aseptically from 16 mares during the estrous and diestrous stages of the cycle. Pathologic changes were evaluated, using light microscopy, and endometrium was classified as Kenney's category I, II, or III.

Endometrial tissue of category I (n = 5 mares in estrus; n = 3 in diestrus); category II (n = 3 in estrus; n = 4 in diestrus), and category III (n = 4 in estrus; n = 4 in diestrus) were processed for scanning electron microscopy (sem). All specimens were fixed immediately after biopsy because it was found that numerous bleb-like projections were formed when fixation was delayed.

Category I endometrium had normal glands, and fibrotic tissue was not observed by light microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed numerous hexagonally shaped cells that were covered with many microvilli. Ciliated cells also were observed, and they contained long healthy cilia. Category II endometrium had 2 to 4 nests surrounded by collagen fibers. Of the 4 specimens, 3 had moderate leukocyte infiltration (59 ± 14.8 wbc/4 high-power fields [450 × ]). Scanning electron microscopy revealed some inflammatory changes with slight swelling of the cell surface. Several cells in category II endometrium lacked microvilli, but they were interdispersed among many healthy hexagonal cells. Many nests were seen in category III tissue, and 2 specimens had severe infiltration of wbc (232,264 cells/4 fields). These 2 specimens appeared to be swollen when examined by sem. Degenerative changes were more extensive in category III endometrium. Large areas lacked microvilli, and some areas had complete loss of the cell boundaries. Numerous holes and ulcer-like formations also were observed on the surface of this type of endometrium.

Morphometric analysis, of the ciliated cell population indicated no significant difference in the quantity of cells in normal tissue during estrus vs diestrus. Category III tissue had significantly (P < 0.05) more surface damage than did tissue of the other 2 categories.

In conclusion, the degree of surface damage observed, using sem, paralleled the number of fibrotic nests that were seen by light microscopy. The amount of surface swelling was related to the amount of inflammatory infiltration observed by light microscopy.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

surgery was adjusted on the basis of IOP measurements. Bleb revision procedures to remove scar tissue over the implant or injection of 5-fluorouracil into the bleb was performed when medical treatment failed to reverse progressive increases in IOP or when

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, and a bubble-like appearance to the gas was noted within the right cranial and right and left caudal portions of the thorax. The bubble-like appearance was considered to be attributable to pleural blebs or pulmonary bullae. The probable large pulmonary

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

excellent for identification of spontaneous pneumothorax, but not for identification of its causes, such as pulmonary bullae and blebs. In a review of 12 affected dogs, radiography revealed pneumothorax in all dogs, but bullae and blebs were seen in only 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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spontaneous with underlying lung disease. Spontaneous idiopathic pneumothorax may be caused by pulmonary blebs, bullae, or cystic lesions in the lung parenchyma. Radiographic findings associated with these conditions often include unilateral or bilateral

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

anesthesia, and rabbits have been used as a laboratory model for pneumothorax and pulmonary bullae. 3 In humans and dogs, pneumothorax is well described, and the predominant cause of spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs is rupture of pulmonary bullae or blebs. 4

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association