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of hepatic disease in nonreptilian species, have been documented for few reptile species, but tissue sensitivity and specificity have been inconsistent between species. 14 , 15 Bile acids, critical for the digestion and absorption of fats and fat

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hypersecretion and accumulation of mucus within the gallbladder lumen are characteristic histopathologic findings in dogs with GBM. 2,7–9 Investigators of 1 study 10 found that the bile acids taurochenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid stimulate gallbladder

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

therapeutically or endogenous overproduction of cortisol affects specific bile components in dogs. Therefore, the purpose of the study reported here was to examine potential influences of twice-daily oral administration of hydrocortisone on the bile acids profile

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

GBM, the first of which was a change in the composition of gallbladder bile acids. In the gallbladder bile of healthy dogs, taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid account for approximately 72.8%, 20.3%, and 6.2% of the

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

few reference laboratories to run this test, it must be run soon after collection, and samples require specific handling, such as shipping on dry ice. Serum bile acids and protein C activity are 2 practical diagnostic tests, that can be run on banked

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Ursodeoxycholic acid (udca; 10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally to 5 healthy cats for 3 months. Signs of illness were not apparent in any cat during treatment with udca. Results of monthly CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were unchanged during drug administration. There was a decrease in serum cholesterol concentration in 4 cats. Total postprandial serum bile acids (ppsba) concentration was significantly (P = 0.0003) increased over total preprandial serum bile acids (prsba) concentration at all sample collection periods. The PRSBA and PPSBA concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased at all sample collection periods after administration of udca, compared with baseline values. Ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acids were not detected in serum prior to initiating administration of udca. Both bile acids were detected in the serum of all cats 1 and 2 months after udca administration and were detected in the serum of 2 cats 3 months after initiating UCDA administration. Hepatic ultrasonographic findings were normal before and after completion of udca administration. A mild, focal lymphocytic infiltrate was observed in 3 cats 3 months after initiating udca administration. Results of the study indicate that udca is absorbed into the systemic circulation of cats after oral administration, undergoes hepatic conjugation, and appears to be safe.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate postprandial changes in serum concentrations of unconjugated bile acids in healthy Beagles.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from dogs at regular intervals up to 8 hours after consumption of a meal. Serum concentrations of 5 unconjugated bile acids were determined at each time point, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring.

Results—Total serum unconjugated bile acid concentration was significantly increased, relative to baseline values, at 360, 420, and 480 minutes after feeding. Unconjugated cholic acid was significantly increased at 360, 420, and 480 minutes. The proportion of total unconjugated bile acids represented by cholic acid was significantly increased at 240 to 480 minutes. Deoxycholic acid was significantly increased at 360 and 420 minutes. Chenodeoxycholic acid was significantly increased at 360 to 480 minutes. Lithocholic acid was significantly increased at 180 minutes, whereas no significant changes in ursodeoxycholic acid were detected at any time point.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Healthy Beagles had significant increases in serum concentrations and changes in the profile of unconjugated bile acids after a meal. These increases persisted > 8 hours, indicating that prolonged withholding of food is necessary when to avoid the risk of a false-positive diagnosis when assessing serum unconjugated bile acid concentrations in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:789–793

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Serum total bile acid concentrations were determined for various types and ages of cattle. There was extreme variability among all the cattle, but the variance was twice as large (0.50 vs 0.22 in logarithmic scale) for beef cattle than for dairy cattle. There was no significant difference in serum total bile acid concentrations between beef cattle and dairy cattle in midlactation. Values for calves < 6 weeks old and for 6-month-old heifers were significantly (P = < 0.05) lower than values for lactating dairy cows. The 5th to 95th percentile range of values (μmol/L) for beef cattle was 9 to 126; for lactating dairy cattle, 15 to 88; and for 6-month-old dairy heifers, 11 to 64.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine effects of finely ground diet and food deprivation on pH and bile acid concentration in the proximal portion of the porcine stomach and effects of bile acids and pH on the pars esophageal mucosa in vitro.

Animals

Sixteen 15- to 30-kg pigs.

Procedures

Gastric content samples obtained from pigs fed a finely ground pelleted or coarsely ground meal diet were assayed for gastric pH and bile acids. Stratified squamous epithelium was studied in an Ussing chamber, and histologically. Electrical conductance and transmucosal mannitol fluxes (as indices of tissue permeability) were determined at pH 4.0, 2.0, and 1.5 and in response to treatment with 0, 1, 2, or 3 mM taurodeoxycholate or glycocholate.

Results

Pigs fed the finely ground feed had significantly (P = 0.01 ) lower proximal stomach pH than did pigs fed the coarse meal. Proximal stomach bile acids concentration was significantly (P = 0.04) higher in pigs fed the finely ground diet. The H+ and bile acids concentration increased with time after feeding. In vitro exposure of the stratified mucosa to high H+ (pH < 4.0) and bile salt concentration (≥ 1.0 mM) resulted in significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in tissue conductance and mannitol fluxes, whereas low pH or bile acids alone had little effect.

Conclusions

High H+ and bile acids concentration in the stomach of pigs fed finely ground diets or subjected to feed deprivation may contribute to ulceration of the pars esophageal tissue. Bile acids act synergistically and in dose-dependent manner, with low pH causing damage to the stratified squamous epithelium in vitro. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1170-1176)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Serum bile acid concentrations were measured after food had been withheld for 12 hours (fasting serum bile acid [ fsba] concentration) and 2 hours after a meal (postprandial serum bile acid [ psba] concentration) using a direct enzymatic procedure in 108 cats clinically suspected of having hepatobiliary disease. In all cats, liver tissue was examined histologically to confirm the diagnosis. Twenty-six cats did not have histologic evidence of hepatobiliary disease and served as controls. The remaining 82 cats had hepatobiliary disease including hepatic lipidosis (n = 20), portosystemic vascular anomaly (n = 24), hepatic necrosis (n = 13), hepatic neoplasia (n =8), or cholestatic hepatic disease (n = 17). Sensitivity and specificity of measuring fsba and psba concentrations were calculated for each test alone and when results were interpreted in combination (ie, in series and in parallel), and were compared with sensitivity and specificity of routinely used serum biochemical tests, including measuring serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ- glutamyltransferase, and measuring serum concentrations of cholesterol, bun, and total bilirubin.

When tests were considered individually, determination of fsba and psba concentrations had higher specificity than did the other tests (using a cutoff of 15 μmol/L for fsba concentration and of 20 μmol/L for psba concentration). Determination of psba concentration had the highest sensitivity of all single tests in cats with hepatic lipidosis, portosystemic vascular anomaly, or cholestasis; determination of alanine aminotransferase activity or psba concentration had the highest sensitivity for cats with hepatic neoplasia; and determination of aspartate aminotransferase activity had the highest sensitivity for cats with hepatic necrosis. For all cats with hepatobiliary disease, determination of psba concentration had the highest sensitivity of any single test.

Combination testing using results of measuring total serum bile acid concentrations in conjunction with results of measuring serum enzyme activity or total bilirubin concentration gave the best overall test performance. Results indicate that both the fsba and psba concentration should be determined, but that if paired samples cannot be collected, the psba concentration should be preferentially measured. In a small number of cats (6/108), the fsba concentration exceeded the psba concentration.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association